Publications

2017
Manel KDP, Perera S. FAMILY MIGRATION TO URBAN AREAS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON DESTINATION COMMUNITIES IN SRI LANKA (CASE STUDY IN COLOMBODISTRICT). X IGU Conference on Urbanization, Health & Well Being and Sustainable Development Goals . 2017.Abstract
Urban ward family migration is one of the key aspects of internal migration process. Mainly it is influenced by rearranging population and workforce in urban areas. In the developing countries, urban ward family migration is increased due to the influence of factors such as socio-demographic, economic, political, and cultural and environments etc. Literature on migration in national and international level has focused on various approaches of internal migration. However, in local context family migration to urban areas and its consequences are rarely addressed. Selected urban communities in Colombo district by case studies and in-depth interviews to obtain qualitative data. Content analysis method used to analyze different areas of qualitative data. Findings revealed that the most migrant families tended to migrate to urban areas in Colombo district as a result of inadequate social amenities and poor economic background in the origin places. Further, movements of young respondents of the sample are unplanned. Therefore, they have faced the unemployment issues at the urban destination. Low educated and less experienced migrants are engaged as the employees of informal sector with low wages. Therefore, it is clear that parents’ aspirations towards their children’s education are low. As results of that, several less educated school children are addicted to use illegal drugs. Since increase the urban population density migrants as well as others have suffered from environmental issues; air pollution, traffic congestion, house congestion, land filling issues under constructions and flooding. Findings suggested that improving physical infrastructure and human capital utilization at rural contexts reduce the urban ward migration. Finally, as a longtime solution, government should create a favorable condition for the young and productive population to work and live in every part of the country. Key words: Internal migration, issues, urban areas, Consequences Acknowledgement: Authors would like to thank to the University of Colombo for providing research grant (AP/3/2012/CG/07) to undertake this research. Department of Geography, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.
Manel K. Urban Migration and Employment Security Issues in the Informal Sector, Colombo District. Ruhuna University International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences 2017. 2017.Abstract
Migration to urban areas significantly effect on population growth of urban area's in Colombo District. In Sri Lankan context, people can move to place to place without any barriers of constitution or other restrictions. Most low educated migrants enter to the informal sector employments due to easy accessing into the informal sector. Informal sector is the largest sector of the economy in most developing countries. Although employments in the informal economy play a vital role in Sri Lankan urban economy like other developing economies, most migrants have to face employment issues. However in local context researchers have not addressed this issue adequately Therefore, this study tried to examine socioeconomic aspects of urban migrants' employments in the urban informal sector with respect to their livelihoods, working conditions and wages. Qualitative data was collected from randomly selected 40 migrant households through in-depth interviews and content analysis was applied to analysis of the data. Findings reveal that the youngest aged household heads are decided to migrate to increase opportunities of earning for more comfortable lives. Migrants' poor skills and low level of education have been leaded to low wages and income discriminations. Although, migrants have spent money to migrate to urban locations, most of them were unable to achieve their objectives since increasing the urban population and employment insecurity of informal sector. Conclusion made is that urban ward migration induced to increase employment issues and negative implications on themselves and the urban communities. KeyWords: Employment Issues, Implications, Informal, Migration, Wages *
2016
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying 'univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
Manel DPK. Re-migration intention among urban migrants in the Gampaha District*. International Research Conference, Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo. 2016.Abstract
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the past decades has emphasized that migration plays a vital role in urban population dynamics. Since 1977, the Gampaha District of the Western Province has become a popular urban-ward migration destination and a significant proportion of young people have migrated for employment especially to the Free Trade Zones (FTZs). Many studies have focused on determinants of urban migration. However, research on re-migration intention of urban migrants seems inadequate. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the issues faced by urban migrants and factors that influence urban-ward migration and re-migration intentions. ' The study is based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered from selected urban communities in the Gampaha urban areas. Data were obtained from a sample survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households. Qualitative information was gathered using in-depth interviews. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used for quantitative data while content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Findings revealed that the male-headed households were higher than their female counterparts. More than half of the respondents (60%) had only secondary or primaiy education. A higher percentage of more educated migrants had an intention to re-migrate due to disturbances faced in current urban living. Urban to urban migration (59.7%) was higher than rural to urban migration. Factors such as marriage, development programs, family reasons and respondents’ age at migration were the major factors influencing urban migration. The qualitative analysis also found that inadequate social amenities and poor economic backgrounds lead to urban-ward migration. However, migrants intend to re-migrate in search of more comfortable livelihoods after experiencing negative consequences of migration. Findings suggest that improving physical infrastructure and human capital utilization and decentralizing public services and institutions in the rural contexts would reduce the negative consequences of urban-ward migration. Keywords: factors; influencing; urban migration; households; re-migration Acknowledgement: The author would like to thank the University of Colombo for providing research Grant (AP/3/2012/CG/07) to undertake this research. This abstract is also published in the Proceedings Book of the University of Colombo Annual Research Symposium 2016,11 October 2016
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Research Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population '■growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key "■issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban. migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
2015
Perera SJ, Manel DPK. Urban Human Resources Development: Issues and Prospects. South Asia Urban Forum 2015 . 2015.Abstract
In Sri Lanka, approximately a half of urban population has concentrated in the Western Province. This study aims to identify the issues and prospects in urban human resources development in Sri Lanka. This knowledge is essential to formulate policies for sustainable urban management in Sri Lanka, and garner a broader understanding of nature of urban human resources, issues in the utilization of human resources, and the wellbeing of urban population. The study uses both primary data and secondary data to examine characteristics of urban population and issues faced by urban dwellers with regard to human resources development. The primary study covers selected urban locations in all three districts namely, Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara in the Western province Sri Lanka including 1600 sample population. The project also explores the qualitative aspects of urban dwellers’ wellbeing. This study develops the conceptual approach in recognizing the central role of population dynamics, and socioeconomic, political and environmental factors in addressing wellbeing issues of urban population. This aims at empowering people by fostering the contributory capacities and skills, and talents that they can bring to the improvement of their own quality of life and that of their families, communities, and societies.   South Asia Urban Forum 2015 | pg. 30
Manel K. Determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Sri Lanka: the case studyof Gampaha District. Annual Research Symposium, Department of Demography, University of Colombo. 2015.Abstract
Similar to many other developing countries, Sri Lanka’s internal migration can be classified into two types - inter-district migration and intra-district migration. Literature on internal migration often emphasizes that these migration patterns are mainly determined by a number of socio-demographic, economic and political factors. However, there is a lack of micro level research on what factors determine such migration patterns. Hence, this study explores the determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Gampaha district. The study is based on survey data gathered from three urban areas in Gampaha district. Data were gathered through a random sample of400 respondents. Both descriptive analysis and logistic regression model were employed in this study. The findings reveal that around 12 per cent of migrants had experienced inter-district migration while a large majority, approximately 82 per cent had experienced intra-district migration. It is identified that more than three fourth of intra-district migrant were ever married (82%). Majority of intra-district migrants were in the 30-54 age group while the highest proportion of inter-district migrants was from the age group 25-29 years. Logistic regression results further demonstrated that migrant’s ethnicity, main economic activity and household size positively affected intra-district migration. However, the selection of migrant’s destination differed significantly by the economic activities that the migrant engaged in and the reasons for migration. These results suggest that the consequences of inter-­district and intra-district migration need to be investigated separately when addressing internal migration related issues in Sri Lanka. Keywords: Internal migration, intra-district migration, inter-district migration 
Manel K, Punpuing S, Perera S. Economic Consequences of Urban Migration on Households: A Case Study of Urban Locations in Sri Lanka. International Conference on Promoting Socio-economic Equity in South Asia: Challenges and Prospects, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 2015.Abstract
Since more than three decades, urban migration in Sri Lanka is gradually increasing due to various reasons such as socio-economic problems, natural disasters, political and ethnic issues, cultural requirements etc. As a result of urban migration, economic consequences are affecting the households as well as the entire society. This study aims to explore and estimate the economic consequences of urban family migration at destination. This study is based on a sample survey collected through an administered questionnaire covering 414 migrant households from three urban areas of Kalutara district while qualitative data were gathered by using case studies. The factors related to economic consequences of migrants are analyzed by employing the multivariate analyses method. Analyses found that around two thirds of household heads have below secondary level of education. More than two thirds of migrant household heads were engaged in informal economic activities and more than half of households have no economic security. Results from the linear regression analysis also revealed that the migrant households have been able to significantly improve their household assets within the living time at destination. Furthermore, current savings of the household, household heads' education and migration pattern (temporary or permanent) were positively related with improvement in their household assets while household head's occupation and spouse occupation that belonged to the informal sector were negatively affected. In addition, the qualitative findings also shared that urban migration influence tended in the increase of the negative social and economic consequences such as traffic congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, health issues from pollution of air, water, noise and inadequate disposal system. This study suggests that future employment programs and awareness programs should focus on empowering especially migrant informal employees in urban communities. Keywords: Economic consequences, Urban, Migration, Households, Sri Lanka  
Manel KDP, Sunethra P. Economic Security issues among Urban Migrants in Sri Lanka. Annual Research Symposium, National Centre for Advanced Studies in Humanities & Social Sciences. 2015.Abstract
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the decades emphasizes that migration plays a vital role in urban population growth and which are shaped by number of social, economic and political factors. Migrant population in urban areas has been identified as vulnerable group with regard to in accessing land, housing, employment and other services. Like in many other countries, in Sri Lanka too, economic security issue is one of the key issues facing the urban migrant. Therefore, this study explores the economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of economic security which are important for policy. Migrant household is defined considering household in which the head of the household had migrated to an urban location six month prior to the date of survey. The study is based on both quantitative and qualitative data gathered in one urban location, Kalutara district in Sri Lanka. The socio-economic characteristics of migrants are examined by using the quantitative data collected through a sample survey which consists of 414 households. In addition, six case studies are used to identify issues faced by them during the migration process. The factors related to economic security of migrants are analyzed by using multivariate analysis.   The findings reveal that the more than half of migrants in the study area have experienced employment insecurity condition and it is correlated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Gender differences in employment security show that females had lower level of economic security compared with their male counterparts. Approximately two thirds of female migrants have engaged in informal economic activities. The multivariate logistic regression results suggest that migrant’s individual and household level factors, such as occupation category, level of education, the sector in which the migrant employed, migrant’s health condition, household expenditure and household servings are significant predictors of the likelihood of economic security. The qualitative findings also reveal that several environmental and political factors have contributed in creating migrant’s economic security related issues. These findings suggest that policy makers should pay their attention in developing policies and programmes to overcome economic security related issues among migrants especially on females in urban communities.     Key words: *Economic Security; urban Issues; Urban Migration.  
2014
Sunethra P, Manel K. Demographic Compositions and Employment Issues of Urban Settlement Communities in Colombo District. Annual Research Symposium 2014, National Centre for Advanced Studies. 2014.Abstract
Introduction Like in many other developing countries, Sri Lanka too urban work force contributes largely to the labour force of the country. Colombo is the highly urbanized district in the country whereas 78 percent of its population is currently living in urban areas. The informal sector absorbs approximately 45 percent of employment of the labour force, mainly to the non-agricultural employment (Department of Census and Statistics, 2012). Which is relatively high compared to other districts and it has also important impact on determining the low level of unemployment (3%) in the district. It is evident that all macroeconomic policies have direct and indirect effects on the growth of both urban informal and formal employment since 1970s. The number of people employed or unemployed or searching for work in an area depends primarily on the demographic compositions of its population. Also, demographic components such as births, deaths (natural increase) and migration determine the size and the age - sex structure of labour force. Previous studies have largely focused on economic aspects of urban informal sector and inadequately discussed the importance of demographic compositions and issues of current manpower. Therefore, this paper attempts to identify the demographic compositions and employment related issue in urban settlement context.   Problem Statement The key issues facing the urban communities in many developing countries are found to be urban unemployment, underemployment, poverty and unequal distribution of resources (Todaro, 1976; ILO, 2012). Today, 18.3 percent of Sri Lankan population lives in urban areas and nearly half of the urban population (48%) lives in the Colombo district (Department of Census & o Statistics, 2012). Colombo being the largest city of the country, half of its population concentrated in 1,505 settlements which were identified as underserved settlements, illegally build, of which 86% of land owned by the state. About 300,000peopleare living in 65,000 housing units which are slums and squatter settlements where health and sanitation facilities remain at low levels (USDA, 2011). Many people migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment tend to find job in informal sector and find shelter in slums and squatter settlements. These informal jobs lack basic social or legal protections or employment benefits and may be found in the formal sector, informal sector or households. Hence, identifying demographic compositions and employment related issues in the context of urban settlement work force are important for addressing policy implications. Objectives The objectives in this paper are twofold: first to examine the literature on demographic compositions of work force in urban settlement area: Second, to identify issues of urban employment and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants.   Empirical Evidence' There are two sets of literature exist on demographic compositions and urban work force. First, related to the effect of demographic factors or compositions on employment participation (Dariotis et al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Riordan & Shore, 1997; Thongchumnum, 2008) and the second, demographic and economic motives of migration to urban areas and expansion of urban informal sector (Todaro, 1976) Several studies reveal that population compositions such as age, sex, ethnicity, and education influence on the employment participation of a population in the informal sector (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Arunathilaka & Jayawardene, 2010). In Sri Lanka,it is found that the informal sector contributes to more than two thirds of total employment which consisted of own-account workers, unpaid family workers, and daily paid, private sector employees (Arunatilake and Jayawardena, 2005; Gunatilaka, 2008). The studies have emphasized the age- sex composition and migratory behavior of the workers those absorb to urban informal sector and frequently argued that a large number of short duration migrants find employment in the informal sector and most occupations available for males (Banerjee, 1983; McGee, 1982; Kundu, 1999)Also, the workforce in the informal sector is very young and majority of them are in in the age group of 15 to 35 and the level of literacy and education are very low (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Kandu, 1999). There are gaps in knowledge with regard to manpower issues, which are closely related to demographic compositions in urban settlement areas. Methodology The study is based on quantitative data which was gathered from a random sample of two selected urban settlement communities in Nawagampura Colombo district in 2013. The sample size for the present study is 487 individuals who were either employed or searching for employment during the reference period and between ages 15-59. Data were collected by using interviewer administered questionnaire. Individual questionnaire included demographic and, socioeconomic characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, age, marital status, and level of education, and current employment status and so on. Bi-variate and logistic regression analyses were done to identify demographic determinants of employment participation and employment related issues. In the logistic regression model, the dependent variable has two outcomes, (a) employed and (b) unemployed. The independent variables are age, sex, level of education, marital status, household size and religion.   Findings, Conclusion and Policy Implications The findings reveal that among those aged 15-59 persons 54% of males and 46% are females while mean age is 36 years. A substantial proportion of working age population (30%) is unemployed and this figure is ten times higher than district average (3%). The proportion of female unemployment is four times (81%) higher than male (19%). Majority of unemployed females are in aged 15-24. More than half of the population had level of education grade 6 to 11, and 29% had primary or below. Only 12% had passed GCE O/L and above. The ethnic composition of working age population shows that a large majority is from non-Sinhalese ethnic groups (Sinhalese -36%, Sri Lankan Tamil-48% and Moor- 16%). Marital composition shows that 75% of population had currently married while 23% are single. More than two thirds of employed persons (71%) state that their current job is not secure as they are engaged in informal employment. Logistic Regression results also revealed that controlling for other demographic factors females are 10 times more likely to get unemployed when compared to their male counterparts. In addition, age, level of education, and current marital status are significant predictors of likelihood of getting unemployed. These results suggest that future employment programmes should focus on empowering women and creating employment opportunities for females in urban settlement communities. Furthermore age-sex structure of population and education composition need to be taken into consideration when addressing employment related issues in these communities. Keywords: Demographic Composition; Employment Participation; Urban Workforce   References B Arunatilaka, N., &J ayawardene, P. (2010). Why people choose to participate in the Informal sector in Sri Lanka. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 53, 225-248. Department of Census, and Statistics. (2012). Census of Population and Housing 2012.Colombo: Department of Census and Statistics. Dariotis, Jacindaet_al. (2011, April). Pathways of Early Fatherhood, Marriage, and Employment: A         Latent  Class Growth Analysis. Demography, 48, 593-623. Gunatilaka, R. (2008). Informal employment in Sri Lanka: Nature, probability of employment and Determinants of wages. International Labour Organization. International Labour Organization (2012). Statistical update on employment in the informal economy. Department of Statistics, ILO. Kundu A. (1999) Urban Informal Sector in India: Macro Trends and Policy Perspectives. Discussion Paper. International Labour Office, Geneva. Riordan, C., & Shore, L. (1997). Demographic Diversity and Employee Attitudes: An Empirical Examination of Relational Demography Within Work Units. Applied Psychology, 82, 342-358. Scott, M., Swortzel, K.', & Taylor, W. (2005). The Relationships between Selected Demographic •, Factors and the Level of Job Satisfaction of Extension Agents. Southern Agricultural Education Research, 55, 102- 115. Thongchumnum, P.^j Suwanro, S., &Choonpradub, C. (2008, November). Demographic Factors Affecting Employment in Pattani and Songkla Provinces of Thailand. Asian Social Science, 4, 169-176. Todaro M. (1976) Internal Migration in Developing Countries: A Review of Theory, Evidence, Methodology and Research Priorities. International Labour Office. Urban Settlement Development Authority (2011). Coiporate Plan 2011- 2016,'USDA. 
Manel PKD. Issues in women employment participation in the informal sector. Research Symposium, Department of Demography, University of Colombo. 2014.Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to examine the issues facing women employed in the informal sector in developing countries. The employment participation of women in the informal sector has been increasing in developing countries in recent years. The contribution of this gendered informal employment to the total employment in Sri Lanka is also significantly different from the experiences of other developing countries. The evidence shows that in Sri Lanka, men dominate the proportion of the employed in the informal sector (71%), whereas women dominate the proportion in other contexts. The general notion of the positive relationship between the level of education and female labour force participation is, however, questionable in the context of Sri Lanka, where the female labour force participation rate has remained stagnant at 33 to 35 percent of working age women in recent decades. Still, currently more than half of total employed women (54%) engage in the informal sector. Therefore, it is vital to examine the issues of women who work in the informal sector. This study is based on existing literature with respect to women’s informal sector economic activities in different contexts. Women’s issues are identified and analyzed under three main areas such as job-related issues, demographic and socioeconomic-related issues and health and morbidity-related issues. The findings reveal that women have faced several job-related issues such as job loss, job related injury, sickness and death, and trade union-related issues. Low level of education, marital status and fertility behavior, number of school-age children, looking-after elderly parents, low income and poverty were found as other demographic and socioeconomic- related issues of these women. The findings further revealed that informal sector women have faced health and morbidity related-issues which were related to their occupations. The majority of them have engaged in occupations such as selling goods, street vending, craft working, domestic aid and unpaid family activities and they have suffered with communicable diseases. It is also found that social welfare programs for these women need to be strengthened to improve the quality of their lives. Key words: Women employment participation, Informal sector, Employment issues
2013
Manel DPK, Perera S. Factors affecting children’s education in urban settlement communities inColombo. Annual Research Symposium, University of Colombo. 2013.Abstract
It is widely evident that parental socio-economic factors significantly contribute to their children’s human capital investment and well-being. Parental occupation and education are two key factors in decision making towards their children’s education. It is evident that the lack of parental awareness and low socio-economic environment lead children to engage in child labour without continuing their education. In addition, children’s poor commitment towards education will create a lack of protection and vulnerability within the community. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the factors associated with children’s decreased participation in secondary and tertiary level education in urban settlement communities. The study is based on both qualitative and quantitative data gathered from two selected urban settlement communities in the Colombo district. The sample size is 100 households with children of age 5-18. In addition, 10 case studies will be analyzed. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are applied for the quantitative data while content analyses are made for the qualitative data. The findings reveal that more than 90% per cent of the parents had low levels of education (below G.C.E. Ordinary level) which had a significant impact on their children’s schooling and attitudes towards education. In addition, a majority of children who were aged 15-19 responded that they had lower intentions to continue education due to their parents’ lower economic background. However, younger children who were aged 10-14 had higher intentions to complete their education up to G.C.E. O/L. Young children’s positive attitudes towards education were associated with the intervention programmes which are being conducted by the government organizations in these locations. Furthermore, results make it evident that parental occupation also negatively affected their children’s intention towards higher education. The qualitative findings also discovered that several community and environmental factors such as poverty, drug addiction, lack of awareness and encouragement, lack of resources and facilities, and parental attitudes towards education largely contributed to school dropouts and children’s decreased intention to continue education. * Financial assistance from the University of Colombo is acknowledged.  
2011
Manel DPK. A study of the factors determining change in the employment of women in Sri Lanka. 2011.Abstract
Female labour force participation in Sri Lanka has increased due to socio-economic development of the country. Growth of female labour force participation was very low during the colonial era; prior to the independence in 1948. But with the socio­economic development during 1948-1977, a substantial growth of female labour force participation was seen. But, it was mainly confined to the agricultural sector and some fields of the service sector. With the implementation of liberalized economic policies after 1978, female labour force participation in all the sectors of economy grew at an increased pace. This growth was mainly attributable to the interaction of a number of demographic and socio-economic factors. Therefore, correct identification of main factors is very important because it would help planners and policy makers to initiate policy measures to maximize favorable effects and minimize unfavorable effects. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the main variables that influenced female labour force participation in Sri Lanka and to measure their impact. The sample was selected from the Sri Lanka Labour Force Survey conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics in 2006. The dispersion of conditional female labour force participation at the total sample is investigated by running multiple regressions. In Sri Lanka’s female labour market, female-headed household and never married female are the most significant factors for the change in women’s employment. Several implications resulted to emerge a comparatively slow growth of female labour force participation in Sri Lanka. Size of the never married female population, educational attainment and the size of the segment of female-headed households seem to be very important factors than a number of other demographic and socio-economic factors. There is substantial scope for increasing female labour force participation in Sri Lanka if appropriate measures are taken. Key Words: Female labour force participation, Sri Lanka