Building material with a thousand-year history which is only being second for stone can be introduced as wood. Complexity of wood is found in the interrelationship between several cells at a much larger scale. Wood cell wall is made up of cellulose, hemicellulose and the hydroxyl groups on these chemicals make the cell wall hygroscopic. Lignin is the agent cementing cells together while rigidifying the cell wall. It creates a comparatively hydrophobic molecule. Moisture in wood has a resilient effect towards its properties, and wood-water relations greatly affects on the wood in application. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of hydroscopic property of historical timber against load bearing in heritage structures in Sri Lanka. Ambalam(s); heritage structure, a way side resting place built under vernacular architecture was selected as the case study. Padivitiya Ambalama, Panavitiya Ambalama, Karagahagedra Ambalama, Giruwa Ambalama and Rukula Ambalama were selected as in prior to timber as the main constructive material. This paper reviews on wood-water interaction through mapping the grain orientation of exposed cross sections of the structural components. The capability of water to alter physical properties of wood are only deliberated in cases wherever there is an influence on state and in transition. Results depicted the historical structural components have overcome the impacts caused due to the hydroscopic property through proper grain oriented sectional applications. This had influenced the structure to rest stable against load bearing for years.Keywords: Timber; Grain distribution; Hydroscopic property, Fibre saturation pointWood Science, Wood and Non-Wood Industry71Proceedings of the 25th International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2020 of the Department of Forestry andEnvironmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka(87)
G.L.H.S. H, Amarasekera HS, Perera PKP, Rupasinghe RADRI. Utilisation of Wood Waste in Moratuwa Wood Working Industry, in International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2020 of the Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Nugegoda : University of Sri Jayewardenepura; 2021:71.Abstract
Moratuwa is traditionally famous for the carpentry and furniture manufacturing. There are several types of wood working industries in the cluster. Among them carpentry shops, sawmills and integrated sawmills were identified as the wood waste generating industries. Main objective of the study is to identify the current wood waste utilisation patterns and optimising the wood waste flow. Questionnaire surveys were conducted and field measurements were taken to gather reliable data. Stratified sampling method was followed. The prominent species use in the wood working industry is Teak (38.7%) followed by species are Mahogany (28.8%) and Albizia (3.1%). Machinery usage varies among different industries. Integrated sawmilling industry has the highest diversity of the machinery usage. Circular saw (44.6%) is the most abundant type of machinery used by integrated sawmilling industry. In carpentry industry planer saw (41.0%) is the most frequently using mechanical tool. Sawmilling industry uses different types of saws but the prominent type of sawing equipment is the circular saw (73.0%). 6,489.879 MT of total wood waste is generated within a month by entire population of wood working industries in Moratuwa. Out of them, sawmills produce 4,279.750 MT/month of wood waste, 2,003,467 MT/month of waste by the integrated sawmills and carpentry shops produce 206,662 kg/month. Among the total wood waste generation saw dust contributes 76.5%, 16.5% of wanes and 6.9% of offcuts. It was found that 63.4% carpentry shops, 100.0% of sawmills and 91.0% of integrated saw mills already utilise their wood waste. Quantity of current overall wood waste utilisation within the area of 20 km radius is calculated as 2,903,625 kg/month which has a possible increment up to 4,198,319 kg only by improving the current wood waste transportation. Wood waste generation and utilisation flow diagram and shortest path among the utilisers and waste collection points were illustrated. By adopting this waste utilisation methods, several business opportunities can be created and waste can be utilised in environmental friendly manner.Keywords: Sawdust, Wood waste, Utilisation
The aim of the study is to identify the wood utilized in the traditional houses built in Uva province of Sri Lanka, constructed using traditional construction technologies. The timber samples were taken out from roof elements such as rafters, wall plates and reapers from three different timber structures located at three different locations constructed during 1960 - 1970 using vernacular timber preservation technics and preservatives. Samples were extracted and adequately prepared for a microscopic investigation to observe the characteristic microscopic anatomical features. Sledge microtome was used for wood sectioning and photomicrographs were obtained by polarized light microscope. The authentic samples and reference microscopic identification keys were employed in order to conclude on the wood species involved. The relative density of the samples was also measured using the maximum moisture content method to verify the identification. Timber samples were identified using vessels, fibers, rays, parenchyma, and other microscopic features. Based on the macro and micro examination of the external and microanatomical features the timber used for rafters, reapers, wall plates were identified as Mango wood which is scientifically known as Mangifera indica. The relative density values were in the range of 0.52 - 0.7
Private tutoring which is also known as shadow education is globally expanding phenomenon (Byun et. al. 2018). Sri Lanka is no exception. “In Sri Lanka, supplementary private tutoring has long been a pervasive part of many students’ everyday experiences” (Bray 2003). Even though Sri Lankan government spent a big amount of money per-student (Rs. 11,804 in 2015 and Rs.11,357 in 2016 on average, Ministry of Education), many Sri Lankan children start attending private tutoring leading up to grade five scholarship examination (Cole 2017). Among Sri Lankan students for private tutoring demand was very high since many years ago. In 1990, it was estimated that 75 percent of students were attending private tuition classes. The proportion is 62 percent among G.C.E (A.L) arts students, 67 percent for G.C.E (A.L) commerce students and 92 percent among G.C.E (A.L) science students in the same year (De Silva 1994). Empirical literature on private tutoring is growing. However, whether shadow education indeed matters to academic achievement is still unclear and needs further analyses (Byun 2014: 54; Cole 2017).
On one hand, in Sri Lanka, the government always tries to provide education at its cost. On the other hand, people always claim for free education. In such a situation, private tutoring is escalating. As a result, household expenditure for private tutoring is also increasing. It seems that parents enroll their students in public schools and send them to learn in informal fee-paid out-of-school classes. As a result, parents have to spend much money on private tutoring. On this background, this study firstly assesses individual contribution of public schools and private tutoring classes to student academic performance, secondly ascertains the reasons for the increasing demand for private tutoring and finally estimates household expenditure for both public school education and private tutoring.
The study assesses some selected aspects of public school education versus private tutoring for school level education. Therefore, the objectives of the study are:
to determine the individual contribution of both public schools and private tutoring classes to students’ academic performance,
to estimate per student expenditure borne by households for private tutoring, and to ascertain reasons for demand for private tutoring.
Methods and analytical tools
To achieve the objectives of the study, data regarding public schools, private tutoring classes, student performance and household are required. Student performance is available in Department of Examinations. However, for an in-depth analysis, the attendance of students and the extent of teaching (the coverage of subject matter) in public schools and private tuition classes, household expenditure borne for private tutoring need to be gathered. To gather these data, a sample of 100 students who sat for the G.C.E (O.L) examination in December 2017 and 300 students who completed their G.C.E. (A.L) examination in August 2017 were randomly selected so that sampled G.C.E (A.L) students represent four subject streams i.e. arts, science, technology and commerce. All these sampled students were selected from among those who enrolled in public schools in Colombo district which represents the highest student population (23.3%) according to School Census 2016. In addition, selected public sector officials of the Department of Education, principals of selected schools, the officials of private tuition classes and famous teachers who conduct private tuition classes were interviewed in order to collect preliminary data that were helpful to design the questionnaires.
In the case of input and output data, student performance is not separately available for public schools and private tutoring. It is available as an added variable of both sectors, and student participation can be estimated separately for both sectors. Considering this situation, the following simple linear model was estimated to determine the contribution of both public schools and private tutoring to student performance.
Yi is the ith student’s academic performance, X1i is the time period of the ith student spent in studying in his or her public school, X2i is the time of the ith student spent in studying in his or her tutoring class/classes, βi is the parameters to be estimated and Ui is the residual term. In addition to these models, descriptive statistics were used in estimating household expenditure for education.
Results and discussion
Out of all G.C.E (O.L) subjects studied in private tuition classes by students, tuition fee is very high for French, Western Music, English Literature, Art, Dancing and IT. However, when compulsory subjects for the G.C.E (O.L) are considered, tuition fee is the highest for mathematics and followed by science. Monthly tuition fee at G.C.E (O.L) for both mathematics and science are respectively greater than monthly per student expenditure borne by government for students in public schools (Appendix 1). According to estimated values for quantity demanded from students in private tuition classes for each subject at G.C.E (O.L) it was found that both mathematics and sciences subjects are ranked highest. As such, higher class fee and higher demand for mathematics and science are consistent. In the case of G.C.E (A.L) monthly tuition fee of all the subjects of all streams is greater than Rs. 1000 which is equal to the monthly per-student expenditure borne by the government at present for public school education.
Sampled public school students at both G.C.E (O/L) and (A.L) were inquired of eleven reasons regarding their learning in private tuition classes. Out of these reasons three were found as most influencing ones. According to the descending order of preference of students those reasons can be stated as “in the private tuition classes repetition of the subject matter taught in the public schools and therefore tuition classes support them to understand academic matters easily, distribution of handouts and notes in the private tuition classes and adoption of better teaching methods in fee-paid out-of-school classes”. Based on the proposed model explained above, linear, log linear and reciprocal regression models were estimated respectively taking total marks obtained by each student for his/her G.C.E (O.L) subjects studied in his private tuition class and Z-score each student obtained for his/her G.C.E.(A.L) examination as dependent variables. Total number of hours spent studying all the subjects in both private tuition class/es and public schools separately included as independent variables. Parameters of tuition time in private classes are highly significant with the positive sign and private tuition classes could be identified as a significant contributor in determination of student performance at both G.C.E (O.L) and (A.L) (Appendix 2).
Conclusions and policy recommendations
The paper concludes that private tuition classes also contributes the knowledge of students in public schools in Sri Lanka, parents of school children spend extensively on fee-paid out-of-school classes. Even though free education is still provided in Sri Lanka, parents pay much more money on education of their children. In the case of policy recommendations, in order to produce productive results through the market forces, rapidly escalating private tutoring industry emphasizes requirement of monitoring of the same by the government. Students attending private tuition classes understand that teaching quality is better in these classes than that in public schools. This proposes public schools to look for more attractive teaching methods. Finally, higher demand for informal fee-paid out-of-school education puts a big question mark in presence of free school education.
Keywords: Academic performance; Public schools; Shadow education.References Bray, Mark (2003). “Adverse Effects of Private Supplementary Tutoring: Dimensions, Implications and Government Responses”, International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO.
Byun, Soo-yong (2014). “Shadow Education and Academic Success in Republic of Korea”, in H. Park and K.-k. Kim (eds.), Korean Education in Changing Economic and Demographic Contexts, Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects 23, Springer Science Business Media Dordrecht.
Byun, S., Chung, H., & Baker, D. (2018). “Global patterns of the use of shadow education: Student, family, and national influences”, Research in the Sociology of Education, 20, 71-105.
Cole, Rachel (2017). “Estimating the impact of private tutoring on academic performance: primary students in Sri Lanka”, Education Economics, 25:2, 142-157.
De Silva, W.A, (1994). “Extra-School Tutoring in the Asian Context: with special reference to Sri Lanka”, Department of Educational Research, National Institute of Education.
Average monthly tuition fee for private tutoring charged for each G.C.E (O/L) subject as explained by public school students who are attending private tuition classes (Rs.)
No of StudentsSubjectAverage monthly Tuition fee (Rs.)
435Total No of Students
Source: Field survey, 2019
Sum of Tuition hoursb
Sum of School hoursc
Total Marks (O/L)a
a- Total marks obtained for all subjects learned in the tuition class.
b- Total number of hours spent in the tuition class to study all subjects included as the dependent variable..
c- Total number of hours spent in the public school to study subjects studied in the tuition class.
Upgrading Wood Based Industries in Sri Lanka with special reference to Moratuwa Furniture Cluster
H S Amarasekera Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka
The wood-based industry is one of the oldest industries in the country that provides livelihood to many people in both rural and urban areas. However, the industry has been in a state of deterioration in terms of quality and competitiveness due to inadequate wood supply in term of quality and quantity, unfavorable business climate, scarcity of trained manpower, lack of market opportunities, research support and finances for investments to improve the industry.
There are around 1700 industries in Moratuwa wood based furniture cluster and it has been in existence for many decades. This industry has deteriorated over the years and is currently incapable of producing furniture of high quality for the export market. However large firms in the cluster use advanced technology and have a totally integrated production process with saw mills, timber seasoning and treatment facilities indicating that it is an organized cluster that can be upgraded to an innovative cluster by implementing a comprehensive development program.
There have been several initiatives on development of wood working industry and timber utilization research on timber processing have yielded data towards upscaling and redefining the small timber manufactures in Sri Lanka. The key options that can be adopted to improve the industry are to improve utilization of available sustainable timber resources to increase the supply of raw materials to the Moratuwa cluster, improve product quality, increase marketability of products and minimize environmental pollution. Selected industries in this cluster can be upgraded into international standards by introduction of new technology and transfer of knowledge, providing systematic training in improving furniture designing, timber preservation, seasoning and machine maintaining capabilities.
Achievement of productive wood products industry will make a significant contribution towards employment generation and increasing the percentage of contribution to GDP by Timber based products.
Keywords – wood industry, furniture, forestry, timber, development plan