Structural timber can be identified as a construction material which has high strength to weight ratio, therefore can be used for structural members with larger spans. Timber is used for construction of roofs, doors, windows and ceilings and for house construction. In order to construct a typical single story house of 100 m2, a volume of approximately 1.5 m3 timber is used for roofing. About 320,000 houses are built in a year locally which require more than 470,000 m3 volume of timber. This is approximately 110,000 trees are harvested per year. Timber is the most common structural material used for roof construction in Sri Lanka, especially in residential house construction, and Coconut and Kempas are the most common timber types used. In order to investigate the timber usage in residential houses’ roof construction in Sri Lanka, ten residential houses roofed with timber were selected in Colombo area and the timber element sizes of those houses were investigated. The structural members of the roofs such as rafters, purlins, ridges and wall plates of each of these houses were designed against bending, deflection, bulking, shear and bearing. These were designed in accordance with according to the timber design guideline BS 5268-2:2002 (British Standard, 2002) to meet the relevant loading conditions. The results were compared with the actual member sizes used in each house. The typical sections used for rafters, ridge plates, wall plates and purlins are 4”×2”, 7”×2”, 4”×3”, 4”×2” respectively. It was found that the timber in 60% of Coconut rafters, in 80% of Kempus ridges and wall plates and in 55% of Kempus purlins was overused. Such timber wastage can be minimized by designing the roof members according to the design guidelines. This can save a large amount of timber thereby saving trees and environment.
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More women than men migrate internally in Sri Lanka, the majority of female migrants migrating to the urban areas of the Western Province either due to the availability of female -oriented job opportunities in industrial, commercial and service sectors or for marriage and family-related reasons. However, there is a lack of research on employment participation and its determinants with respect to women who have migrated. This paper investigates the status of migrant women's employment participation and its determinants, taking the Kalutara District as a case study. Migrant households were selected from 3 Urban Council areas using the simple random sampling method. The sample size was 582 urban migrant women (aged 18-59). Data were gathered through an interviewer administered questionnaire from April to June, 2014. The results related to the demographic and socio-economic determinants of the employment participation of women were presented based on descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results based on descriptive analysis revealed that the mean age of migrant women was 36.4 years and that only about 30% of migrant women were employed. More than half of migrant women of the sample (59.0%) were Sinhalese, while Tamils and Moors were 7.0% and 34.0% respectively. Employment participation was higher among Sinhalese and Tamil migrant women (35.0% each) compared to Moors (21.1%). More than half of the women had an educational level of G.C.E O/L or below and more educated women (G.C.E. A/L and above) were employed compared to those with a lower level of education. More than half of the unemployed women would like to engage in home –based self-employment. The logistic regression results revealed that marital status, level of education, household size, ethnicity and household dependency status were significant predictors of employment participation of urban migrant women. These findings suggest that policies and programmes should focus on skill development and facilitate self-employment activities to improve the employability of urban migrant women
Urban ward family migration is one of the key aspects of internal migration process. Mainly it is influenced by rearranging population and workforce in urban areas. In the developing countries, urban ward family migration is increased due to the influence of factors such as socio-demographic, economic, political, and cultural and environments etc. Literature on migration in national and international level has focused on various approaches of internal migration. However, in local context family migration to urban areas and its consequences are rarely addressed. Selected urban communities in Colombo district by case studies and in-depth interviews to obtain qualitative data. Content analysis method used to analyze different areas of qualitative data. Findings revealed that the most migrant families tended to migrate to urban areas in Colombo district as a result of inadequate social amenities and poor economic background in the origin places. Further, movements of young respondents of the sample are unplanned. Therefore, they have faced the unemployment issues at the urban destination. Low educated and less experienced migrants are engaged as the employees of informal sector with low wages. Therefore, it is clear that parents’ aspirations towards their children’s education are low. As results of that, several less educated school children are addicted to use illegal drugs. Since increase the urban population density migrants as well as others have suffered from environmental issues; air pollution, traffic congestion, house congestion, land filling issues under constructions and flooding. Findings suggested that improving physical infrastructure and human capital utilization at rural contexts reduce the urban ward migration. Finally, as a longtime solution, government should create a favorable condition for the young and productive population to work and live in every part of the country.
Key words: Internal migration, issues, urban areas, Consequences
Acknowledgement: Authors would like to thank to the University of Colombo for providing research grant (AP/3/2012/CG/07) to undertake this research.
Department of Geography, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.
This study investigates the impact of strategic purchasing on purchasing performance in the presence of a mediating impact of supplier development with a special reference to Sri Lankan apparel sector. This study also examines how supplier involvement mediates the relationship between strategic purchasing and supplier development. A theoretically grounded conceptual model is proposed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling approach. Data collected from a random sample of 85 apparel sector firms located in the Western Province in Sri Lanka are used to test the proposed model. Findings reveal that all hypotheses tested in the model are supported. Thus, this study concludes that supplier development acts as a partial mediator to boost the positive impact of strategic purchasing on the purchasing performance of the buyer firms. It is also evident from the findings that the supplier involvement partially mediates the relationship between strategic performance and supplier development. Ultimately, this study helps the management of Sri Lankan apparel sector firms to better understand how to uplift the purchasing function and increase its role in the firm for better performance.
Migration to urban areas significantly effect on population growth of urban area's in Colombo District. In Sri Lankan context, people can move to place to place without any barriers of constitution or other restrictions. Most low educated migrants enter to the informal sector employments due to easy accessing into the informal sector. Informal sector is the largest sector of the economy in most developing countries. Although employments in the informal economy play a vital role in Sri Lankan urban economy like other developing economies, most migrants have to face employment issues. However in local context researchers have not addressed this issue adequately Therefore, this study tried to examine socioeconomic aspects of urban migrants' employments in the urban informal sector with respect to their livelihoods, working conditions and wages. Qualitative data was collected from randomly selected 40 migrant households through in-depth interviews and content analysis was applied to analysis of the data. Findings reveal that the youngest aged household heads are decided to migrate to increase opportunities of earning for more comfortable lives. Migrants' poor skills and low level of education have been leaded to low wages and income discriminations. Although, migrants have spent money to migrate to urban locations, most of them were unable to achieve their objectives since increasing the urban population and employment insecurity of informal sector. Conclusion made is that urban ward migration induced to increase employment issues and negative implications on themselves and the urban communities.
KeyWords: Employment Issues, Implications, Informal, Migration, Wages
Coral reefs are known to undergo phase shift in to macro-algae and they have lost the capacity to remain in or return to a coral-dominated state. This shift will not only affect corals, but the others heavily depend on heterogeneous habitat afforded by corals.
Sallitivu in Panichchankerni, eastern province, is a small island (41328 m2). The Island is surrounded by a ring of coral reef with an elevated breaking reef crest, seaward slope and centred shallow lagoon (<1.2m at high tide). The shore is entirely a thick layer of washed coral rubbles. The archived aerial photographs confirmed these coral rubbles present only after 2004 tsunami.
Underwater visual census were carried out within the reef lagoon and three sites in reef slope using 30 m long belt transect. In addition to diversity of corals and algae, percentages of live, dead and bleached coral cover were recorded.
The reef lagoon is shallow (10-60 cm) and much of the reef crest is exposed at low tide. Within the reef lagoon, the live coral cover was <5%. Around 15 % was observed recently bleached, 12 % were overgrown by algae; Padina sp, Halimeda sp, Sargassum sp, Caulerpa recemosa and Dictyota sp, and the rest was dead corals smothered by sediments. The seaward slope with high wave action was mostly smothered dead corals with live corals <3 %. Coral colonies were represented by Acroporidae (branching and table corals) - Acropora cytherea, A. divaricata, A. formosa, A. gemmifera, A. grandis, A. hemprichii, A. hyacinthus, A. latistella, Acropora sp., A. nobilis, and A. robusta; (Foliaceous)- Montipora aequituberculata and M. hispida; Faviidae (sub massive and encrusting) - Favites halicora, Favites spinosa, Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra daedalea; Pocilloporidae (Lace /cauliflower) -Pocillopora damicornis; Poritidae (Massive /submassive)- Porites evermanni, P. paliformis, and P. rus.
Live corals observed were immature. Southern end of the reef slope had emerging corals among unstable coral rubbles. It is assumed that the degradation was started post-tsunami and continued due to natural stresses. The recovery of corals may hindered by macro-algal growth and resulting accumulation of sediments, smothering due to less wave action within reef lagoon and resulting recruitment and settlement failure. Recent bleaching would be due to exposure to direct sunlight during the change of tides and low sea level. Increasing oxygen level due to algal blooms would also prone for bleaching.
Avoiding such undesirable phase shifts from coral dominance to algae and reverse them when occur, requires an urgent reform of scientific approaches to understand the processes causing the degradation. A better understanding on why some reefs rapidly degrade and others do not is critical. Most reef conservation efforts are directed toward reserve implementation, but new approaches are needed to sustain ecosystem function since demarcation of a marine reserve alone would not benefit in improving reef resilience.
Biofouling is one of the major means of introducing organisms in to new marine environments. Bryozoans form the major component of the biofouling community. There is dearth of information on their presence in our waters. Therefore, systematic description on existing biofouling species in Sri Lankan coastal region is very essential. This paper describes the composition of bryozoans of the class Gymnolaemata with a description of two new species recorded from coastal waters of Sri Lanka.
The study was conducted in Colombo Port, one of the busiest ports in the country as well as in the region with an increased vulnerability for the introduction of geographically distinct species along with increased shipping operations. Monthly samples were collected from eight sampling stations using artificial settlement collectors which consisted of rope backbone supporting a number of horizontal PVC pipe arms that were attached to the settlement surfaces. The collectors were submerged systematically where first level was 1m below the water surface and others setting at 1m intervals. Species were identified microscopically observing fine morphological features. Scoring percentage covered by each bryozoan was determined using a quadrat (400 squares each with 5mm x 5mm area).
During the study, seven species of the class Gymnolaemata were recorded namely; Electra bengalensis, Hippoprina indica, Celleporaria volsella, Parasmittina sp., Schiporella errata, Watersipora subtorquata and Sinoflustra annae. According to the One way ANOVA test there is a significant difference (p<0.05) between each sampling location for species richness and total percentage cover. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between four sampling depths for species richness and total percentage cover.
Two new bryozoans identified were, Sinoflustra annae and Electra bengalensis. Percentage cover of S. annae and E. bengalensis ranged from 1-18 % and 0.3-40 % respectively. Among these, E. bengalensis was recorded in all sampling stations yet S. annae was recorded only in CICT, BQ, OP and UCT. Though, these species are native to India there are no published literatures for the presence of Sri Lankan coastal waters. Therefore, present finding will be the first record for their presence in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Bryozoans, species richness, percentage cover, Colombo Port, Sinoflustra annae, Electra bengalensis
The rapid change in technology, the speed with which the volume of information increases, the changes in information-seeking patterns and the changes in higher education have forced university authoritiesto rethink the traditional roles of libraries and to invest them with exiting new roles.
The University of Sri Jayewardenepura (USJP), being the largest university in Sri Lanka in terms of student number, has taken the challenge of tackling the changing role of the library successfully. At the moment, the library services 05 main faculties: Humanities and Social Sciences, Applied Sciences, Management Studies and Commerce, Medical Sciences, and Graduate Studies and it hopes to extend its services to the two newly established faculties of Engineering and Technology. The user community consists ofnearly 15000 undergraduate and postgraduate students and nearly1000 academic and non–academic staff.
The changes done at the USJP library can be categorized into two main areas: a) library services and productsand b) the physical environment. Both of these areas were included in the “modernization project” of the library, which started in 2015 but some changes had happened before this project as well. For example, when considering the services and products of the library, the major achievement of the library in recent times was the migration of the integrated library management system from Windows for Alice, to the open source system, Koha, in 2014. This migration helped not only to have an efficient system, but to save money on annual maintenance charges.Within this system, all users are registered in the e-system and they have no more hassles with library cards. Patrons can also check the availability of an item using Koha. Online item reservation and renewing facilities are also available.
In order to support the emerging research culture in the university, the library established a research support unit in 2015. In view of streamlining the user education programmes, a separate unit was established in January 2016. The library’s institutional repository named ‘Scholar Bank’, set up in early 2012, where the publications and academic work of staff and students aredeposited, is very popular among the user community. The number of electronic databases available to the universitywas increased from 1 to 7 with the consortium facilities provided by the University Grants Commission in 2014.
The efficiency of the Inter LibraryLoan (ILL) service was increased by assigning a dedicated team separately for this in 2013. This servicefulfillsthe needs of our own user community as well as the needs of outside libraries.With the introduction of the cash register in 2012, library fines are paid at the counter itself and users are not sent to the finance branch which is located in a separate building.
Upon the request of the English Language Teaching Unit (ELTU), USJP, we designated a section of the library as the English Learning Zone (ELZ). This has very simple English story booksand leveled readers and this is heavily used by the students during their first year where the staff of ELTU combines its programmes with the library.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags were put in use with the new detection gatesin 2015, as a precaution to minimize unauthorized movements oflibrary property. Along with this, a security surveillance system, CCTV, will function soon to prevent thefts and mutilation of library material.
The library started a laptop lending service to students in 2015 and students are allowed to bringin their own electronic equipment to the library. Wi-fi was provided to designated areas of the library in mid 2015 and theseare now full of students using computers.
With regard to the physical environment, improvements started with air conditioning provided to the areas used by students. The beautification of the library was done by having reading promotion posters and pots with foliage on appropriate locations. Specially designed furniture like the “READ” rack, gadget corners, triangular shaped movable computer tables, lobby sofas, multi-revolving racks have been placed at strategic corners to attract users. Kiosk type touch screen computers will be provided in the lobby for interactive searching of library items.
Some more changes that have been implemented in the library are as follows: The library books which have not been used for the last 30 years or so and are not permitted to be withdrawnare kept as a separate collection named “Depository Collection”. This process helps to give a fresh look to the existing collections.“Just-returned” books are kept for few hours before re-shelving in a rack on the same floor where the counter is located. A photocopier is kept in the permanent reference section to make users avoid taking the books out from that section. A suggestion box and a book are kept at the counter to entertain comments from the users. Noticeboards were fixed and regularly updated so that users regularly check them for announcements. A coin operated Nescafe machine was installed inside the library to provide refreshment facilities to patrons without them having to go out from the library. Though it is not common to have newspaper reading facilities in academic libraries, our library also provides this facility to fulfill user needs.
It is proposed to have research commons, individual and group study areas for students in the future. An elevator will be fixed for facilitating easy access to the upper floors and convenient material handling. More importantly, a library building renovation project is underway. It is hoped that upon the completion of the renovation, a conducive environment will be created in the library to attract users.
Librarians need to support the improvement of the learning experience of students. The USJP library staff has addressed this by developing information literacy modules for all levels of students which help students to improve their critical and analytical abilities. Our library has an updated attractive homepage which acts as an entry point to library resources. The library web was updated in 2015 with the assistance of the university web team.
The USJP library has many areas of strengths on meeting these new roles successfully. Foremost in this, is the support extended by the university authorities to make the library improve in its many areas. A dedicated and skilled library staff is the driving force behind this and it is very much in evidence in the library at USJP. The support extended by other units is also vital: the IT centre, the web team of the university, the ELTU, the Staff Development Centre, the Supplies Division of the university deserve special mention. The strong collaboration between the library and the academics of the university is very important in providing quality library services and it is much in evidence. The relationships with colleagues in other libraries and institutions both locally and internationally are also helpful to get ideas in innovative things and the library of USLP is successfully placed within this vibrant network.
“Innovation” is a fashionable word in the current era of knowledge based economy, For today’s business organizations, creation and exploitation of knowledge has become a competitive advantage. Moreover, the global competition has been strengthened due to the rapid developments in information technology. Hence, organizations are searching for innovative products, processes, and technologies to win the markets due to this competition. Thus the importance of innovation performance in presence of R&D, knowledge management practices and market oriented organization culture. This paper intends to elaborate these dimensions which are expected to influence innovation performance of an organization. A conceptual framework is developed by accounting, direct impacts from R&D Management Practices, Knowledge Management practices, and Market Orientation on Innovation Performance. In addition, the proposed framework tests moderating impacts by Resource Support and Management Style & Leadership on the above mentioned relationships.
The research framework is supported by well established literature and the conceptual framework is developed with a positivistic approach. The proposed model will be used to survey the software development industry in Sri Lanka. However, this research framework is capable of examining the same research problem in other industries.