Publications by Type: Conference Proceedings

2016
Manel DPK. Re-migration intention among urban migrants in the Gampaha District*. International Research Conference, Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo. 2016.Abstract
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the past decades has emphasized that migration plays a vital role in urban population dynamics. Since 1977, the Gampaha District of the Western Province has become a popular urban-ward migration destination and a significant proportion of young people have migrated for employment especially to the Free Trade Zones (FTZs). Many studies have focused on determinants of urban migration. However, research on re-migration intention of urban migrants seems inadequate. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the issues faced by urban migrants and factors that influence urban-ward migration and re-migration intentions. ' The study is based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered from selected urban communities in the Gampaha urban areas. Data were obtained from a sample survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households. Qualitative information was gathered using in-depth interviews. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used for quantitative data while content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Findings revealed that the male-headed households were higher than their female counterparts. More than half of the respondents (60%) had only secondary or primaiy education. A higher percentage of more educated migrants had an intention to re-migrate due to disturbances faced in current urban living. Urban to urban migration (59.7%) was higher than rural to urban migration. Factors such as marriage, development programs, family reasons and respondents’ age at migration were the major factors influencing urban migration. The qualitative analysis also found that inadequate social amenities and poor economic backgrounds lead to urban-ward migration. However, migrants intend to re-migrate in search of more comfortable livelihoods after experiencing negative consequences of migration. Findings suggest that improving physical infrastructure and human capital utilization and decentralizing public services and institutions in the rural contexts would reduce the negative consequences of urban-ward migration. Keywords: factors; influencing; urban migration; households; re-migration Acknowledgement: The author would like to thank the University of Colombo for providing research Grant (AP/3/2012/CG/07) to undertake this research. This abstract is also published in the Proceedings Book of the University of Colombo Annual Research Symposium 2016,11 October 2016
Samarakoon M. Road accidents in Sri Lanka: Correlations of Psychological, Cultural and Geographical factors in Eastern Province. Urban transportation: Issues & Challenges. 2016;10:32.Abstract
In present, the road accidents can be considered as one of the highly threatening causes of deaths. In Sri Lankan context fatal accidents are rising in considerable manner according to the statistics in year 2015, it is recorded 2801 deaths and 2590 fatal accidents in Sri Lanka. Government, Civil Societies and all the responsible parties in Sri Lanka have implemented various strategies to prevent accidents in addition enforcement of traffic laws. Even though there is no reduce accidents and it is reported majority of accidents are occurring in Eastern Province. The persuading factor of this study to identify whether there is some special reasons or courses are affecting for accidents in Eastern Province? If it is so what are they? How those factors are special or deference than other provinces or part in country? What are the preventive factors or strategies can be applied? In addressing the above, this study has done at Akkarepaththu police area where the accidents are occurring with higher rate in Ampara Driscrit in Easten province and sample were selected from two ways.  First, randomly selected 117 public, drivers, police officers, students and other communities in the area. Data were gathered through Questionnaires, interviews and Focus group discussions. At the second stage used Forum Theater activities specially did chain of street drama in congested city areas to focusing massage of road accidents.Through this drama research team had communicated and built an image among community about the accidents. And also used a questioners, focus group discussion with participants. Motor cycles and three wheelers have been the major causes of road accidents in the area with a percentage of 75% and 21% respectively. There is a strong connection with psychological, cultural and geographical factors with accidents and it appears through the factors: Women used to sitting by side owing to their cultural factors on the motor cycles, all most all are in Muslim community and they claim their ownership in geographical resources to their way, so that Muslim community act as disobediently with law enforcement, military attitudes and heroism are directly and indirectly affected for accidents in Eastern. In addition it is observed that the juveniles and young men do not hesitate to break the road rules in the area. Proper guidance and awareness with implementing law must be focused with this situation were seen as the suggested solutions for the road accidents in the area. 
Malwatta Y, Amaratunge S, Withanawasam MPK. A STUDY OF CONSUMER CREDIT BEHAVIOR IN SRI LANKA GOLD MARKET. International Conference of Japanese Graduates’ Alumni Association in Sri Lanka. 2016:6 – 10.Abstract
1. INTRODUCTION According to the Central Bank statistics 2009 - 2014, it can be noted that there is a gradual increase in the preference of gold loans by the borrowers as a means of consumer credit, during last 5 years period in Sri Lanka.This increase in gold loans implies several economicoutcomes that can be anticipated in the future in credit market as well as in gold market in Sri Lanka. Corresponding to the gradual increase in preference of gold loans by the borrowers, the lender starts to raise the loan to value ratio or gold loan advances they grant while reducing the interest rates and encouraging more gold loan borrowings by creating a competition in the credit market. Through this encouragement, people who have various borrowing behaviors come in to the market and if most of the borrowers are in a vulnerable position and if the repayment ability is ambiguous, then loan defaulting rate will enhance in this credit channel. When loans are defaulted, lenders try to cover up their loan values through selling out the collateral. Since the common collateral is gold for these types of loans, when increasing supply of the gold, the price of gold will decline while creating a problem to the gold business as well. Gold price decline will not only be affected to the gold business but also for the financial organizations who keep their reserves in gold. They also are punished by declining the value of their gold investments creating a path for a domestic financial crisis. Therefore, apart from the mere credit supply increase in return to borrowers’ preference, lenders must have a good understanding on purpose of borrowing, repayment ability and their borrowing behavior in general to avoid above mentioned type situations. Because if lenders are aware on their borrower, they can adjust their terms and conditions on gold loan and reduce possible losses arise in not repaying. On the other hand, if lenders have a good understanding on borrowing patterns, they can design variety of gold loan products by adjusting tenure, interest rate and loan to value ratio. However, in Sri Lanka, these types of studies are lacking on gold loan market. Thus, through this study, it is expected to examine the characteristics and general borrowing behavior in Sri Lankan gold loan borrowers to render an understanding on their borrowing practices to the lenders by fulfilling that need. In addition to that, it demonstrates the importance of studying the participants and their behaviour in gold loan market to utilize this credit facility effectively in the development of the Sri Lankan economy by identifying the borrowing segments in the gold loan market. Therefore, the results of this research will not only be beneficial for gold loan lenders and financial institutes but also to the policy makers in deploying effective credit sources to the various segments in the society. Therefore, this study provides a clear view on gold loan borrowers and their behavior as a solution for prevailing knowledge deficiency in Sri Lankan gold market.   2. LITERATURE REVIEW Churiwal and Shreni (2012) have carried out a study on Indian Gold loan market examining the features of gold loans, loan interest and gold loan values. The findings of that research reflected that 65 percent of the gold loan market is with rural area in India. The study also discovered that, the organized sector is challenging the large unorganized gold loan market dominated by pawnbrokers and moneylenders, with non-bank financial companies leading the pack due to simpler approval and disbursal processes, flexible products and better accessibility. In contrast to the Indian study, a research conductedbyGrashof (2002) on People’s Bank Pawning and Savings Centers in Sri Lanka discovered that pawning is more common in urban areasAnd, whereas saving is popular in rural areas in Sri Lanka. It also revealed that women make more use of pawning facilities than men in Sri Lanka.Pawning is not only a product for the poorlately; even business people have started to make use of pawning. Pawning has become the most important credit facility in terms of outreach to the poorer population (Grashof, 2002). The credit purpose is not fixed, providing quick and easy access to liquidity for various needs. Discretion is guaranteed as the transaction takes place in a separate room or behind closed curtains (Grashof, 2002).   3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to investigate the consumer credit behavior in Sri Lankan Gold Loan Market; the specific objectives are to assess the characteristics of gold loan borrowers and to assess consumer borrowing behavior in gold loan market.   4. METHODS The target groups of this study are gold loan borrowers. The reason for aiming this sector is that lack of studying the behavior of these gold loan borrowers who have raised the value for gold loans in personal loan market during recent years. The study is mainly based on primary data gathered from a survey. The data was collected with a self-completion questionnaire to maintain the confidentiality and reliability of the information gathered. But the researcher had to interview some respondents with their consent in filling the questionnaire due to language problems. On the other hand, the data has been gathered from a non- probability sampling method: convenient sampling methodwhere those who are willingly participate in this research were selected. Data collection activities has been conducted among sixty gold loan clients on the basis of convenient sampling from Kaduwela area in Colombo district, Western province, Sri Lanka. Eventually, out of sixty distributed questionnaires, two were rejected, due to the problem of incompletion. By conducting this research in a semi-urbanized area as Kaduwela, the results can be generalized for both urban and rural borrowers. The researcher made sure that the sample is consists with gold loan borrowers by distributing the self-completion questionnaires in the premises of six gold loan lending institutes located in Kaduwela area. Gold loans providing institutes can be mainly identified as banking institutes and non-banking institutes and due to inability in accessing to banking pawning divisions because of the security and confidentiality maintained in banking premises, the researcher has used only a sample from private gold loan lending institutes for collecting data.   5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Analyzing the characteristics of the gold loan borrowers, it can be noticed that majority of the borrowers who engaged in gold loans are female while most of the borrowers came under the age limit of 41 -50.  On the other hand, greater part of the borrowers is married and completed their education up to G.C.E. A/L. On top of that, most of the gold loan borrowers are under Rs 15,000 – Rs. 30,000 income slab. According to the survey analysis, it was identified that these borrowers were mainly borrowing for consumption purposes and investment purposes. As per those two purposes, the borrowers’ borrowing behavior is explained under five borrowing influencing variables such as over indebtedness, financial literacy, subjective norm towards consumer credit usage and perceived behavioral control. With the use of regression model, it was proved that there is a significant positive relationship between over indebtedness, financial literacy, subjective norm towards consumer credit usage and perceived behavioral control with the average gold loan advance taken for consumption purposes. Conversely, regression model built up for investment purpose borrowing further demonstrated that there is a relationship between over indebtedness, financial literacy, attitude, towards consumer credit usage and perceived behavioral control and average gold loan advance taken for investment purpose. In addition to that, borrowing topologies introduced by Worton, Grew, &Jessett (2014) on Consumer credit behaviour which is consisted with three borrowing topologies such as Survival borrowing, Lifestyle borrowing and Reluctant borrowing has been used to present the borrowing behaviour of people who take loans for consumption purposes. On the other hand the borrowing behaviour of people who take loans to invest in business is explained by another three borrowing topologies such as Lifestyle borrowing, Reluctant borrowing and Long Investment Borrowing.   6. CONCLUSION In summarizing the above behavioral models, it can be noticeable that the journeys throughout the borrowing topologies will be changed according to the changes arise in the debt level, financial literacy, attitude and norms towards consumer credit usage and the perceived behavioral control of the borrower. In the overall aspect, borrowers who take gold loans for investment purposes possess satisfactory financial management skills and repaying capability than consumption purpose borrowers. Therefore, it can be recommended to prioritize lending for investment purpose borrowers, because it generates more profit to the gold loan lenders while it reduces their risk level. Since those credits are utilized in investments, it will create a value to the economy. In addition to that, it is observed that there is a possibility in promoting gold loans as a source of credit for the development of low and middle income earners’ lives as they are the main income categories who use this source of credit. And, it is important to note that there is a possibility in utilizing gold loans as a source of credit for women empowerment since this credit product records a higher accessibility for women. At the same time, it is important to note that with the promotion of gold loan as a source of credit for women and low income house holders for investment purposes with a parallel change in borrowers’ debt level, attitude and norms towards consumer credit usage, financial literacy and perceived behavioural control will guide them towards higher standard of living. In conversely, borrowing for consumption purposes should be discouraged as it drag them to an over indebted situation.       REFERENCES Anderloni, L., &Vandone, D. (2010). Risk of Over indebtedness and Behavioural Factors. Milano. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. (2013). Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka 2013.Statistics Department of Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. (2014). Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka 2014.Statistics Department of Central Bank, Sri Lanka. Chang, Y.C.R., & Hanna, S. (1992). Consumer credit search behaviour.Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics, 5(3), 207-227. Churiwal, A., &Shreni, A. (2012). Surveying the Indian Gold Loan Market. Cognizant 20- 20 Insight . Grashof, L. (2002). Reaching the Poor Clients of Sri Lanka; People’s Bank Pawning and Savings Centers. Guardia, N.D. (2002). Consumer Crdit in the European Union.ECRI research report no. 1. Kamleitner, B., &Kirchler, E. (2007). Consumer credit use: a process model and literature review. Elsevier Masson SAS . Lusardi, A., &Tufano, P. (2008). Debt Literacy, Financial Experiences and Overindebtedness. Naerum, K. (2012). Consumer Credit Usage and Over-Indebtedness in low income house holds. Cape Town. Nair, G.G., & Davy, D.J. (2014). A Study On The Attitude Towards Gold Loan.Facts For You . Skully, M.T. (1994). The Development of the Pawnshop Industry in East Asia, 73 Venkateswaran, D.N. (2012). Indian Consumers Towards Gold Loan Market.Indian Streams Research Journal . Worton, S., Grew, S., &Jessett, C. (2014). Consumer Credit Research: Low Income Consumers. OptimisaResearch . Tooth, D.R. (2012).Behavioural Economics and the Regulation of Consumer Credit. Sapere Research Group . Venkateswaran, D.N. (2012). Indian Consumers Towards Gold Loan Market.Indian Streams Research Journal . Worton, S., Grew, S., &Jessett, C. (2014). Consumer Credit Research: Low Income Consumers, OptimisaResearch .  
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying 'univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Research Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population '■growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key "■issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban. migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
Ilankoon IMPS, Goonewardena CSE, Perera PPR, Fernandopulle R. Women’s experiences of vaginal complaints in Estates communities in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka. 24th Triennial conference of Commonwealth Medical Association. 2016:45-46.
2015
Manel K. Determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Sri Lanka: the case studyof Gampaha District. Annual Research Symposium, Department of Demography, University of Colombo. 2015.Abstract
Similar to many other developing countries, Sri Lanka’s internal migration can be classified into two types - inter-district migration and intra-district migration. Literature on internal migration often emphasizes that these migration patterns are mainly determined by a number of socio-demographic, economic and political factors. However, there is a lack of micro level research on what factors determine such migration patterns. Hence, this study explores the determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Gampaha district. The study is based on survey data gathered from three urban areas in Gampaha district. Data were gathered through a random sample of400 respondents. Both descriptive analysis and logistic regression model were employed in this study. The findings reveal that around 12 per cent of migrants had experienced inter-district migration while a large majority, approximately 82 per cent had experienced intra-district migration. It is identified that more than three fourth of intra-district migrant were ever married (82%). Majority of intra-district migrants were in the 30-54 age group while the highest proportion of inter-district migrants was from the age group 25-29 years. Logistic regression results further demonstrated that migrant’s ethnicity, main economic activity and household size positively affected intra-district migration. However, the selection of migrant’s destination differed significantly by the economic activities that the migrant engaged in and the reasons for migration. These results suggest that the consequences of inter-­district and intra-district migration need to be investigated separately when addressing internal migration related issues in Sri Lanka. Keywords: Internal migration, intra-district migration, inter-district migration 
Manel K, Punpuing S, Perera S. Economic Consequences of Urban Migration on Households: A Case Study of Urban Locations in Sri Lanka. International Conference on Promoting Socio-economic Equity in South Asia: Challenges and Prospects, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 2015.Abstract
Since more than three decades, urban migration in Sri Lanka is gradually increasing due to various reasons such as socio-economic problems, natural disasters, political and ethnic issues, cultural requirements etc. As a result of urban migration, economic consequences are affecting the households as well as the entire society. This study aims to explore and estimate the economic consequences of urban family migration at destination. This study is based on a sample survey collected through an administered questionnaire covering 414 migrant households from three urban areas of Kalutara district while qualitative data were gathered by using case studies. The factors related to economic consequences of migrants are analyzed by employing the multivariate analyses method. Analyses found that around two thirds of household heads have below secondary level of education. More than two thirds of migrant household heads were engaged in informal economic activities and more than half of households have no economic security. Results from the linear regression analysis also revealed that the migrant households have been able to significantly improve their household assets within the living time at destination. Furthermore, current savings of the household, household heads' education and migration pattern (temporary or permanent) were positively related with improvement in their household assets while household head's occupation and spouse occupation that belonged to the informal sector were negatively affected. In addition, the qualitative findings also shared that urban migration influence tended in the increase of the negative social and economic consequences such as traffic congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, health issues from pollution of air, water, noise and inadequate disposal system. This study suggests that future employment programs and awareness programs should focus on empowering especially migrant informal employees in urban communities. Keywords: Economic consequences, Urban, Migration, Households, Sri Lanka  
Manel KDP, Sunethra P. Economic Security issues among Urban Migrants in Sri Lanka. Annual Research Symposium, National Centre for Advanced Studies in Humanities & Social Sciences. 2015.Abstract
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the decades emphasizes that migration plays a vital role in urban population growth and which are shaped by number of social, economic and political factors. Migrant population in urban areas has been identified as vulnerable group with regard to in accessing land, housing, employment and other services. Like in many other countries, in Sri Lanka too, economic security issue is one of the key issues facing the urban migrant. Therefore, this study explores the economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of economic security which are important for policy. Migrant household is defined considering household in which the head of the household had migrated to an urban location six month prior to the date of survey. The study is based on both quantitative and qualitative data gathered in one urban location, Kalutara district in Sri Lanka. The socio-economic characteristics of migrants are examined by using the quantitative data collected through a sample survey which consists of 414 households. In addition, six case studies are used to identify issues faced by them during the migration process. The factors related to economic security of migrants are analyzed by using multivariate analysis.   The findings reveal that the more than half of migrants in the study area have experienced employment insecurity condition and it is correlated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Gender differences in employment security show that females had lower level of economic security compared with their male counterparts. Approximately two thirds of female migrants have engaged in informal economic activities. The multivariate logistic regression results suggest that migrant’s individual and household level factors, such as occupation category, level of education, the sector in which the migrant employed, migrant’s health condition, household expenditure and household servings are significant predictors of the likelihood of economic security. The qualitative findings also reveal that several environmental and political factors have contributed in creating migrant’s economic security related issues. These findings suggest that policy makers should pay their attention in developing policies and programmes to overcome economic security related issues among migrants especially on females in urban communities.     Key words: *Economic Security; urban Issues; Urban Migration.  
Hettiarachchi S, Pires A. L2 Acquisition of Wh-Features and Syntactic Constraints: Evidence for Full-Access Approaches. Generative Approches to Language Acquisition (6), 2015 [Internet]. 2015;2015:48-59. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This paper investigates the L2 acquisition of wh-features and relevant constraints (Superiority and Subjacency) by Sinhala-English bilinguals in Sri Lanka. Using results from a Truth Value Judgment Task (TVT) and a scalar Grammaticality Judgment Task (GT), it is argued that advanced adult L2 speakers of English successfully acquire the uninterpretable wh-Q feature and relevant constraints in the target language despite their non-instantiation in overt syntax in L1-Sinhala. The results are consistent with other recent studies which report the successful adult L2 acquisition of new functional features in different grammatical domains (e.g., Campos-Dintrans, Pires & Rothman 2014; Foucart & Frenck-Mestre 2012). The results also support Full Access to UG principles and constraints in adult L2 syntax (White 2003), contra predictions of Representational Deficit Accounts in adult L2 acquisition (e.g., Hawkins & Hattori 2006; Tsimpli & Dimitrakopoulou 2007).
Wijekoon, W. A. S.; Wijekoon KSC. The Role of Special Libraries to Fulfill the Requirement of Industrial Information of Small and Medium Scale Industrial Sector in Western Province. International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015.
Perera SJ, Manel DPK. Urban Human Resources Development: Issues and Prospects. South Asia Urban Forum 2015 . 2015.Abstract
In Sri Lanka, approximately a half of urban population has concentrated in the Western Province. This study aims to identify the issues and prospects in urban human resources development in Sri Lanka. This knowledge is essential to formulate policies for sustainable urban management in Sri Lanka, and garner a broader understanding of nature of urban human resources, issues in the utilization of human resources, and the wellbeing of urban population. The study uses both primary data and secondary data to examine characteristics of urban population and issues faced by urban dwellers with regard to human resources development. The primary study covers selected urban locations in all three districts namely, Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara in the Western province Sri Lanka including 1600 sample population. The project also explores the qualitative aspects of urban dwellers’ wellbeing. This study develops the conceptual approach in recognizing the central role of population dynamics, and socioeconomic, political and environmental factors in addressing wellbeing issues of urban population. This aims at empowering people by fostering the contributory capacities and skills, and talents that they can bring to the improvement of their own quality of life and that of their families, communities, and societies.   South Asia Urban Forum 2015 | pg. 30
2014
Sunethra P, Manel K. Demographic Compositions and Employment Issues of Urban Settlement Communities in Colombo District. Annual Research Symposium 2014, National Centre for Advanced Studies. 2014.Abstract
Introduction Like in many other developing countries, Sri Lanka too urban work force contributes largely to the labour force of the country. Colombo is the highly urbanized district in the country whereas 78 percent of its population is currently living in urban areas. The informal sector absorbs approximately 45 percent of employment of the labour force, mainly to the non-agricultural employment (Department of Census and Statistics, 2012). Which is relatively high compared to other districts and it has also important impact on determining the low level of unemployment (3%) in the district. It is evident that all macroeconomic policies have direct and indirect effects on the growth of both urban informal and formal employment since 1970s. The number of people employed or unemployed or searching for work in an area depends primarily on the demographic compositions of its population. Also, demographic components such as births, deaths (natural increase) and migration determine the size and the age - sex structure of labour force. Previous studies have largely focused on economic aspects of urban informal sector and inadequately discussed the importance of demographic compositions and issues of current manpower. Therefore, this paper attempts to identify the demographic compositions and employment related issue in urban settlement context.   Problem Statement The key issues facing the urban communities in many developing countries are found to be urban unemployment, underemployment, poverty and unequal distribution of resources (Todaro, 1976; ILO, 2012). Today, 18.3 percent of Sri Lankan population lives in urban areas and nearly half of the urban population (48%) lives in the Colombo district (Department of Census & o Statistics, 2012). Colombo being the largest city of the country, half of its population concentrated in 1,505 settlements which were identified as underserved settlements, illegally build, of which 86% of land owned by the state. About 300,000peopleare living in 65,000 housing units which are slums and squatter settlements where health and sanitation facilities remain at low levels (USDA, 2011). Many people migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment tend to find job in informal sector and find shelter in slums and squatter settlements. These informal jobs lack basic social or legal protections or employment benefits and may be found in the formal sector, informal sector or households. Hence, identifying demographic compositions and employment related issues in the context of urban settlement work force are important for addressing policy implications. Objectives The objectives in this paper are twofold: first to examine the literature on demographic compositions of work force in urban settlement area: Second, to identify issues of urban employment and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants.   Empirical Evidence' There are two sets of literature exist on demographic compositions and urban work force. First, related to the effect of demographic factors or compositions on employment participation (Dariotis et al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Riordan & Shore, 1997; Thongchumnum, 2008) and the second, demographic and economic motives of migration to urban areas and expansion of urban informal sector (Todaro, 1976) Several studies reveal that population compositions such as age, sex, ethnicity, and education influence on the employment participation of a population in the informal sector (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Arunathilaka & Jayawardene, 2010). In Sri Lanka,it is found that the informal sector contributes to more than two thirds of total employment which consisted of own-account workers, unpaid family workers, and daily paid, private sector employees (Arunatilake and Jayawardena, 2005; Gunatilaka, 2008). The studies have emphasized the age- sex composition and migratory behavior of the workers those absorb to urban informal sector and frequently argued that a large number of short duration migrants find employment in the informal sector and most occupations available for males (Banerjee, 1983; McGee, 1982; Kundu, 1999)Also, the workforce in the informal sector is very young and majority of them are in in the age group of 15 to 35 and the level of literacy and education are very low (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Kandu, 1999). There are gaps in knowledge with regard to manpower issues, which are closely related to demographic compositions in urban settlement areas. Methodology The study is based on quantitative data which was gathered from a random sample of two selected urban settlement communities in Nawagampura Colombo district in 2013. The sample size for the present study is 487 individuals who were either employed or searching for employment during the reference period and between ages 15-59. Data were collected by using interviewer administered questionnaire. Individual questionnaire included demographic and, socioeconomic characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, age, marital status, and level of education, and current employment status and so on. Bi-variate and logistic regression analyses were done to identify demographic determinants of employment participation and employment related issues. In the logistic regression model, the dependent variable has two outcomes, (a) employed and (b) unemployed. The independent variables are age, sex, level of education, marital status, household size and religion.   Findings, Conclusion and Policy Implications The findings reveal that among those aged 15-59 persons 54% of males and 46% are females while mean age is 36 years. A substantial proportion of working age population (30%) is unemployed and this figure is ten times higher than district average (3%). The proportion of female unemployment is four times (81%) higher than male (19%). Majority of unemployed females are in aged 15-24. More than half of the population had level of education grade 6 to 11, and 29% had primary or below. Only 12% had passed GCE O/L and above. The ethnic composition of working age population shows that a large majority is from non-Sinhalese ethnic groups (Sinhalese -36%, Sri Lankan Tamil-48% and Moor- 16%). Marital composition shows that 75% of population had currently married while 23% are single. More than two thirds of employed persons (71%) state that their current job is not secure as they are engaged in informal employment. Logistic Regression results also revealed that controlling for other demographic factors females are 10 times more likely to get unemployed when compared to their male counterparts. In addition, age, level of education, and current marital status are significant predictors of likelihood of getting unemployed. These results suggest that future employment programmes should focus on empowering women and creating employment opportunities for females in urban settlement communities. Furthermore age-sex structure of population and education composition need to be taken into consideration when addressing employment related issues in these communities. Keywords: Demographic Composition; Employment Participation; Urban Workforce   References B Arunatilaka, N., &J ayawardene, P. (2010). Why people choose to participate in the Informal sector in Sri Lanka. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 53, 225-248. Department of Census, and Statistics. (2012). Census of Population and Housing 2012.Colombo: Department of Census and Statistics. Dariotis, Jacindaet_al. (2011, April). Pathways of Early Fatherhood, Marriage, and Employment: A         Latent  Class Growth Analysis. Demography, 48, 593-623. Gunatilaka, R. (2008). Informal employment in Sri Lanka: Nature, probability of employment and Determinants of wages. International Labour Organization. International Labour Organization (2012). Statistical update on employment in the informal economy. Department of Statistics, ILO. Kundu A. (1999) Urban Informal Sector in India: Macro Trends and Policy Perspectives. Discussion Paper. International Labour Office, Geneva. Riordan, C., & Shore, L. (1997). Demographic Diversity and Employee Attitudes: An Empirical Examination of Relational Demography Within Work Units. Applied Psychology, 82, 342-358. Scott, M., Swortzel, K.', & Taylor, W. (2005). The Relationships between Selected Demographic •, Factors and the Level of Job Satisfaction of Extension Agents. Southern Agricultural Education Research, 55, 102- 115. Thongchumnum, P.^j Suwanro, S., &Choonpradub, C. (2008, November). Demographic Factors Affecting Employment in Pattani and Songkla Provinces of Thailand. Asian Social Science, 4, 169-176. Todaro M. (1976) Internal Migration in Developing Countries: A Review of Theory, Evidence, Methodology and Research Priorities. International Labour Office. Urban Settlement Development Authority (2011). Coiporate Plan 2011- 2016,'USDA. 
Manel PKD. Issues in women employment participation in the informal sector. Research Symposium, Department of Demography, University of Colombo. 2014.Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to examine the issues facing women employed in the informal sector in developing countries. The employment participation of women in the informal sector has been increasing in developing countries in recent years. The contribution of this gendered informal employment to the total employment in Sri Lanka is also significantly different from the experiences of other developing countries. The evidence shows that in Sri Lanka, men dominate the proportion of the employed in the informal sector (71%), whereas women dominate the proportion in other contexts. The general notion of the positive relationship between the level of education and female labour force participation is, however, questionable in the context of Sri Lanka, where the female labour force participation rate has remained stagnant at 33 to 35 percent of working age women in recent decades. Still, currently more than half of total employed women (54%) engage in the informal sector. Therefore, it is vital to examine the issues of women who work in the informal sector. This study is based on existing literature with respect to women’s informal sector economic activities in different contexts. Women’s issues are identified and analyzed under three main areas such as job-related issues, demographic and socioeconomic-related issues and health and morbidity-related issues. The findings reveal that women have faced several job-related issues such as job loss, job related injury, sickness and death, and trade union-related issues. Low level of education, marital status and fertility behavior, number of school-age children, looking-after elderly parents, low income and poverty were found as other demographic and socioeconomic- related issues of these women. The findings further revealed that informal sector women have faced health and morbidity related-issues which were related to their occupations. The majority of them have engaged in occupations such as selling goods, street vending, craft working, domestic aid and unpaid family activities and they have suffered with communicable diseases. It is also found that social welfare programs for these women need to be strengthened to improve the quality of their lives. Key words: Women employment participation, Informal sector, Employment issues
Mawella IJ. Sri Lankan Media Discourse: In Transition?. International Conference on Business, Sociology and Applied Sciences. 2014.
Mawella IJ. ‘Sri Lankan Media Discourse: In Transition?’. International Conference on Business, Sociology and Applied Sciences . 2014;11(7):81-83.
2013
Samarakoon, M. T.; Wijewardhana WBVN ; W. Decline of Social Cohesion and Anomie in Rural Sri Lanka (A Study of Kahawatta Police Area in Rathnapura District). Second International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2013.
Subasinghe SMCUP, Nawarathne BS, Hettiarachchi DS. Santalum album: Current status and research conducted in Sri Lanka. International Sandalwood Symposium. 2013:93-103.Abstract
Santalum album is a native plant of Sri Lanka and its value and quality have been used to show the characteristics of good in the ancient literature. It naturally distributes in the area where mean annual the temperature is between 22.5-25.0 0C; mean annual rainfall is between 1,000-1,500 mm; and at the elevation between 500-1,000 m above mean sea level. However, recent research has proven that S. album grows in wider climatic and elevation regions than the above with a growth rate of 0.3 to 1.0 cm of dbh and 0.3 to 1.0 m of height per year. S. album has been listed as a protected species in Sri Lanka under the Flora and Fauna Act of 1964 and again with the recent amendment of the year 2009. Felling and harvesting have become a lengthy procedure due to this reason and therefore planting is unpopular among the general public. The major threat to the existing trees is the illegal harvesting which heavily caused the resource depletion. Due to the severity of the illegal harvesting, protection has become useless and owners tend to sell trees before the maturity. However, establishment of commercial S. album plantations has become popular and fast growing among the private sector since recent years. This activity became accelerated since 2010 as one company started establishing plantations in different climatic zones of Sri Lanka after some silvicultural studies. Limited availability of lands, poor land quality and poor access to the available lands are the current problems faced in establishing such plantations. S. album research has been stated recently in Sri Lanka and studies on oil quantity and quality, seed germination and seedling hosts were already completed
Manel DPK, Perera S. Factors affecting children’s education in urban settlement communities inColombo. Annual Research Symposium, University of Colombo. 2013.Abstract
It is widely evident that parental socio-economic factors significantly contribute to their children’s human capital investment and well-being. Parental occupation and education are two key factors in decision making towards their children’s education. It is evident that the lack of parental awareness and low socio-economic environment lead children to engage in child labour without continuing their education. In addition, children’s poor commitment towards education will create a lack of protection and vulnerability within the community. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the factors associated with children’s decreased participation in secondary and tertiary level education in urban settlement communities. The study is based on both qualitative and quantitative data gathered from two selected urban settlement communities in the Colombo district. The sample size is 100 households with children of age 5-18. In addition, 10 case studies will be analyzed. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are applied for the quantitative data while content analyses are made for the qualitative data. The findings reveal that more than 90% per cent of the parents had low levels of education (below G.C.E. Ordinary level) which had a significant impact on their children’s schooling and attitudes towards education. In addition, a majority of children who were aged 15-19 responded that they had lower intentions to continue education due to their parents’ lower economic background. However, younger children who were aged 10-14 had higher intentions to complete their education up to G.C.E. O/L. Young children’s positive attitudes towards education were associated with the intervention programmes which are being conducted by the government organizations in these locations. Furthermore, results make it evident that parental occupation also negatively affected their children’s intention towards higher education. The qualitative findings also discovered that several community and environmental factors such as poverty, drug addiction, lack of awareness and encouragement, lack of resources and facilities, and parental attitudes towards education largely contributed to school dropouts and children’s decreased intention to continue education. * Financial assistance from the University of Colombo is acknowledged.  
Infringement of Child Rights: An Examination to some Interrelated Child Problems and Analysis of Legal Measures Enforced to Prohibit Child Problems in South Asia. International Research Conference in Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHS) . 2013:28.

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