Publications by Type: Conference Proceedings

2016
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying 'univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Research Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population '■growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key "■issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban. migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
Ilankoon IMPS, Goonewardena CSE, Perera PPR, Fernandopulle R. Women’s experiences of vaginal complaints in Estates communities in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka. 24th Triennial conference of Commonwealth Medical Association. 2016:45-46.
2015
Manel K. Determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Sri Lanka: the case studyof Gampaha District. Annual Research Symposium, Department of Demography, University of Colombo. 2015.Abstract
Similar to many other developing countries, Sri Lanka’s internal migration can be classified into two types - inter-district migration and intra-district migration. Literature on internal migration often emphasizes that these migration patterns are mainly determined by a number of socio-demographic, economic and political factors. However, there is a lack of micro level research on what factors determine such migration patterns. Hence, this study explores the determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Gampaha district. The study is based on survey data gathered from three urban areas in Gampaha district. Data were gathered through a random sample of400 respondents. Both descriptive analysis and logistic regression model were employed in this study. The findings reveal that around 12 per cent of migrants had experienced inter-district migration while a large majority, approximately 82 per cent had experienced intra-district migration. It is identified that more than three fourth of intra-district migrant were ever married (82%). Majority of intra-district migrants were in the 30-54 age group while the highest proportion of inter-district migrants was from the age group 25-29 years. Logistic regression results further demonstrated that migrant’s ethnicity, main economic activity and household size positively affected intra-district migration. However, the selection of migrant’s destination differed significantly by the economic activities that the migrant engaged in and the reasons for migration. These results suggest that the consequences of inter-­district and intra-district migration need to be investigated separately when addressing internal migration related issues in Sri Lanka. Keywords: Internal migration, intra-district migration, inter-district migration 
Manel K, Punpuing S, Perera S. Economic Consequences of Urban Migration on Households: A Case Study of Urban Locations in Sri Lanka. International Conference on Promoting Socio-economic Equity in South Asia: Challenges and Prospects, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 2015.Abstract
Since more than three decades, urban migration in Sri Lanka is gradually increasing due to various reasons such as socio-economic problems, natural disasters, political and ethnic issues, cultural requirements etc. As a result of urban migration, economic consequences are affecting the households as well as the entire society. This study aims to explore and estimate the economic consequences of urban family migration at destination. This study is based on a sample survey collected through an administered questionnaire covering 414 migrant households from three urban areas of Kalutara district while qualitative data were gathered by using case studies. The factors related to economic consequences of migrants are analyzed by employing the multivariate analyses method. Analyses found that around two thirds of household heads have below secondary level of education. More than two thirds of migrant household heads were engaged in informal economic activities and more than half of households have no economic security. Results from the linear regression analysis also revealed that the migrant households have been able to significantly improve their household assets within the living time at destination. Furthermore, current savings of the household, household heads' education and migration pattern (temporary or permanent) were positively related with improvement in their household assets while household head's occupation and spouse occupation that belonged to the informal sector were negatively affected. In addition, the qualitative findings also shared that urban migration influence tended in the increase of the negative social and economic consequences such as traffic congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, health issues from pollution of air, water, noise and inadequate disposal system. This study suggests that future employment programs and awareness programs should focus on empowering especially migrant informal employees in urban communities. Keywords: Economic consequences, Urban, Migration, Households, Sri Lanka  
Manel KDP, Sunethra P. Economic Security issues among Urban Migrants in Sri Lanka. Annual Research Symposium, National Centre for Advanced Studies in Humanities & Social Sciences. 2015.Abstract
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the decades emphasizes that migration plays a vital role in urban population growth and which are shaped by number of social, economic and political factors. Migrant population in urban areas has been identified as vulnerable group with regard to in accessing land, housing, employment and other services. Like in many other countries, in Sri Lanka too, economic security issue is one of the key issues facing the urban migrant. Therefore, this study explores the economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of economic security which are important for policy. Migrant household is defined considering household in which the head of the household had migrated to an urban location six month prior to the date of survey. The study is based on both quantitative and qualitative data gathered in one urban location, Kalutara district in Sri Lanka. The socio-economic characteristics of migrants are examined by using the quantitative data collected through a sample survey which consists of 414 households. In addition, six case studies are used to identify issues faced by them during the migration process. The factors related to economic security of migrants are analyzed by using multivariate analysis.   The findings reveal that the more than half of migrants in the study area have experienced employment insecurity condition and it is correlated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Gender differences in employment security show that females had lower level of economic security compared with their male counterparts. Approximately two thirds of female migrants have engaged in informal economic activities. The multivariate logistic regression results suggest that migrant’s individual and household level factors, such as occupation category, level of education, the sector in which the migrant employed, migrant’s health condition, household expenditure and household servings are significant predictors of the likelihood of economic security. The qualitative findings also reveal that several environmental and political factors have contributed in creating migrant’s economic security related issues. These findings suggest that policy makers should pay their attention in developing policies and programmes to overcome economic security related issues among migrants especially on females in urban communities.     Key words: *Economic Security; urban Issues; Urban Migration.  
Hettiarachchi S, Pires A. L2 Acquisition of Wh-Features and Syntactic Constraints: Evidence for Full-Access Approaches. Generative Approches to Language Acquisition (6), 2015 [Internet]. 2015;2015:48-59. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This paper investigates the L2 acquisition of wh-features and relevant constraints (Superiority and Subjacency) by Sinhala-English bilinguals in Sri Lanka. Using results from a Truth Value Judgment Task (TVT) and a scalar Grammaticality Judgment Task (GT), it is argued that advanced adult L2 speakers of English successfully acquire the uninterpretable wh-Q feature and relevant constraints in the target language despite their non-instantiation in overt syntax in L1-Sinhala. The results are consistent with other recent studies which report the successful adult L2 acquisition of new functional features in different grammatical domains (e.g., Campos-Dintrans, Pires & Rothman 2014; Foucart & Frenck-Mestre 2012). The results also support Full Access to UG principles and constraints in adult L2 syntax (White 2003), contra predictions of Representational Deficit Accounts in adult L2 acquisition (e.g., Hawkins & Hattori 2006; Tsimpli & Dimitrakopoulou 2007).
Perera SJ, Manel DPK. Urban Human Resources Development: Issues and Prospects. South Asia Urban Forum 2015 . 2015.Abstract
In Sri Lanka, approximately a half of urban population has concentrated in the Western Province. This study aims to identify the issues and prospects in urban human resources development in Sri Lanka. This knowledge is essential to formulate policies for sustainable urban management in Sri Lanka, and garner a broader understanding of nature of urban human resources, issues in the utilization of human resources, and the wellbeing of urban population. The study uses both primary data and secondary data to examine characteristics of urban population and issues faced by urban dwellers with regard to human resources development. The primary study covers selected urban locations in all three districts namely, Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara in the Western province Sri Lanka including 1600 sample population. The project also explores the qualitative aspects of urban dwellers’ wellbeing. This study develops the conceptual approach in recognizing the central role of population dynamics, and socioeconomic, political and environmental factors in addressing wellbeing issues of urban population. This aims at empowering people by fostering the contributory capacities and skills, and talents that they can bring to the improvement of their own quality of life and that of their families, communities, and societies.   South Asia Urban Forum 2015 | pg. 30
2014
Sunethra P, Manel K. Demographic Compositions and Employment Issues of Urban Settlement Communities in Colombo District. Annual Research Symposium 2014, National Centre for Advanced Studies. 2014.Abstract
Introduction Like in many other developing countries, Sri Lanka too urban work force contributes largely to the labour force of the country. Colombo is the highly urbanized district in the country whereas 78 percent of its population is currently living in urban areas. The informal sector absorbs approximately 45 percent of employment of the labour force, mainly to the non-agricultural employment (Department of Census and Statistics, 2012). Which is relatively high compared to other districts and it has also important impact on determining the low level of unemployment (3%) in the district. It is evident that all macroeconomic policies have direct and indirect effects on the growth of both urban informal and formal employment since 1970s. The number of people employed or unemployed or searching for work in an area depends primarily on the demographic compositions of its population. Also, demographic components such as births, deaths (natural increase) and migration determine the size and the age - sex structure of labour force. Previous studies have largely focused on economic aspects of urban informal sector and inadequately discussed the importance of demographic compositions and issues of current manpower. Therefore, this paper attempts to identify the demographic compositions and employment related issue in urban settlement context.   Problem Statement The key issues facing the urban communities in many developing countries are found to be urban unemployment, underemployment, poverty and unequal distribution of resources (Todaro, 1976; ILO, 2012). Today, 18.3 percent of Sri Lankan population lives in urban areas and nearly half of the urban population (48%) lives in the Colombo district (Department of Census & o Statistics, 2012). Colombo being the largest city of the country, half of its population concentrated in 1,505 settlements which were identified as underserved settlements, illegally build, of which 86% of land owned by the state. About 300,000peopleare living in 65,000 housing units which are slums and squatter settlements where health and sanitation facilities remain at low levels (USDA, 2011). Many people migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment tend to find job in informal sector and find shelter in slums and squatter settlements. These informal jobs lack basic social or legal protections or employment benefits and may be found in the formal sector, informal sector or households. Hence, identifying demographic compositions and employment related issues in the context of urban settlement work force are important for addressing policy implications. Objectives The objectives in this paper are twofold: first to examine the literature on demographic compositions of work force in urban settlement area: Second, to identify issues of urban employment and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants.   Empirical Evidence' There are two sets of literature exist on demographic compositions and urban work force. First, related to the effect of demographic factors or compositions on employment participation (Dariotis et al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Riordan & Shore, 1997; Thongchumnum, 2008) and the second, demographic and economic motives of migration to urban areas and expansion of urban informal sector (Todaro, 1976) Several studies reveal that population compositions such as age, sex, ethnicity, and education influence on the employment participation of a population in the informal sector (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Arunathilaka & Jayawardene, 2010). In Sri Lanka,it is found that the informal sector contributes to more than two thirds of total employment which consisted of own-account workers, unpaid family workers, and daily paid, private sector employees (Arunatilake and Jayawardena, 2005; Gunatilaka, 2008). The studies have emphasized the age- sex composition and migratory behavior of the workers those absorb to urban informal sector and frequently argued that a large number of short duration migrants find employment in the informal sector and most occupations available for males (Banerjee, 1983; McGee, 1982; Kundu, 1999)Also, the workforce in the informal sector is very young and majority of them are in in the age group of 15 to 35 and the level of literacy and education are very low (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Kandu, 1999). There are gaps in knowledge with regard to manpower issues, which are closely related to demographic compositions in urban settlement areas. Methodology The study is based on quantitative data which was gathered from a random sample of two selected urban settlement communities in Nawagampura Colombo district in 2013. The sample size for the present study is 487 individuals who were either employed or searching for employment during the reference period and between ages 15-59. Data were collected by using interviewer administered questionnaire. Individual questionnaire included demographic and, socioeconomic characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, age, marital status, and level of education, and current employment status and so on. Bi-variate and logistic regression analyses were done to identify demographic determinants of employment participation and employment related issues. In the logistic regression model, the dependent variable has two outcomes, (a) employed and (b) unemployed. The independent variables are age, sex, level of education, marital status, household size and religion.   Findings, Conclusion and Policy Implications The findings reveal that among those aged 15-59 persons 54% of males and 46% are females while mean age is 36 years. A substantial proportion of working age population (30%) is unemployed and this figure is ten times higher than district average (3%). The proportion of female unemployment is four times (81%) higher than male (19%). Majority of unemployed females are in aged 15-24. More than half of the population had level of education grade 6 to 11, and 29% had primary or below. Only 12% had passed GCE O/L and above. The ethnic composition of working age population shows that a large majority is from non-Sinhalese ethnic groups (Sinhalese -36%, Sri Lankan Tamil-48% and Moor- 16%). Marital composition shows that 75% of population had currently married while 23% are single. More than two thirds of employed persons (71%) state that their current job is not secure as they are engaged in informal employment. Logistic Regression results also revealed that controlling for other demographic factors females are 10 times more likely to get unemployed when compared to their male counterparts. In addition, age, level of education, and current marital status are significant predictors of likelihood of getting unemployed. These results suggest that future employment programmes should focus on empowering women and creating employment opportunities for females in urban settlement communities. Furthermore age-sex structure of population and education composition need to be taken into consideration when addressing employment related issues in these communities. Keywords: Demographic Composition; Employment Participation; Urban Workforce   References B Arunatilaka, N., &J ayawardene, P. (2010). Why people choose to participate in the Informal sector in Sri Lanka. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 53, 225-248. Department of Census, and Statistics. (2012). Census of Population and Housing 2012.Colombo: Department of Census and Statistics. Dariotis, Jacindaet_al. (2011, April). Pathways of Early Fatherhood, Marriage, and Employment: A         Latent  Class Growth Analysis. Demography, 48, 593-623. Gunatilaka, R. (2008). Informal employment in Sri Lanka: Nature, probability of employment and Determinants of wages. International Labour Organization. International Labour Organization (2012). Statistical update on employment in the informal economy. Department of Statistics, ILO. Kundu A. (1999) Urban Informal Sector in India: Macro Trends and Policy Perspectives. Discussion Paper. International Labour Office, Geneva. Riordan, C., & Shore, L. (1997). Demographic Diversity and Employee Attitudes: An Empirical Examination of Relational Demography Within Work Units. Applied Psychology, 82, 342-358. Scott, M., Swortzel, K.', & Taylor, W. (2005). The Relationships between Selected Demographic •, Factors and the Level of Job Satisfaction of Extension Agents. Southern Agricultural Education Research, 55, 102- 115. Thongchumnum, P.^j Suwanro, S., &Choonpradub, C. (2008, November). Demographic Factors Affecting Employment in Pattani and Songkla Provinces of Thailand. Asian Social Science, 4, 169-176. Todaro M. (1976) Internal Migration in Developing Countries: A Review of Theory, Evidence, Methodology and Research Priorities. International Labour Office. Urban Settlement Development Authority (2011). Coiporate Plan 2011- 2016,'USDA. 
Manel PKD. Issues in women employment participation in the informal sector. Research Symposium, Department of Demography, University of Colombo. 2014.Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to examine the issues facing women employed in the informal sector in developing countries. The employment participation of women in the informal sector has been increasing in developing countries in recent years. The contribution of this gendered informal employment to the total employment in Sri Lanka is also significantly different from the experiences of other developing countries. The evidence shows that in Sri Lanka, men dominate the proportion of the employed in the informal sector (71%), whereas women dominate the proportion in other contexts. The general notion of the positive relationship between the level of education and female labour force participation is, however, questionable in the context of Sri Lanka, where the female labour force participation rate has remained stagnant at 33 to 35 percent of working age women in recent decades. Still, currently more than half of total employed women (54%) engage in the informal sector. Therefore, it is vital to examine the issues of women who work in the informal sector. This study is based on existing literature with respect to women’s informal sector economic activities in different contexts. Women’s issues are identified and analyzed under three main areas such as job-related issues, demographic and socioeconomic-related issues and health and morbidity-related issues. The findings reveal that women have faced several job-related issues such as job loss, job related injury, sickness and death, and trade union-related issues. Low level of education, marital status and fertility behavior, number of school-age children, looking-after elderly parents, low income and poverty were found as other demographic and socioeconomic- related issues of these women. The findings further revealed that informal sector women have faced health and morbidity related-issues which were related to their occupations. The majority of them have engaged in occupations such as selling goods, street vending, craft working, domestic aid and unpaid family activities and they have suffered with communicable diseases. It is also found that social welfare programs for these women need to be strengthened to improve the quality of their lives. Key words: Women employment participation, Informal sector, Employment issues
2013
Subasinghe SMCUP, Nawarathne BS, Hettiarachchi DS. Santalum album: Current status and research conducted in Sri Lanka. International Sandalwood Symposium. 2013:93-103.Abstract
Santalum album is a native plant of Sri Lanka and its value and quality have been used to show the characteristics of good in the ancient literature. It naturally distributes in the area where mean annual the temperature is between 22.5-25.0 0C; mean annual rainfall is between 1,000-1,500 mm; and at the elevation between 500-1,000 m above mean sea level. However, recent research has proven that S. album grows in wider climatic and elevation regions than the above with a growth rate of 0.3 to 1.0 cm of dbh and 0.3 to 1.0 m of height per year. S. album has been listed as a protected species in Sri Lanka under the Flora and Fauna Act of 1964 and again with the recent amendment of the year 2009. Felling and harvesting have become a lengthy procedure due to this reason and therefore planting is unpopular among the general public. The major threat to the existing trees is the illegal harvesting which heavily caused the resource depletion. Due to the severity of the illegal harvesting, protection has become useless and owners tend to sell trees before the maturity. However, establishment of commercial S. album plantations has become popular and fast growing among the private sector since recent years. This activity became accelerated since 2010 as one company started establishing plantations in different climatic zones of Sri Lanka after some silvicultural studies. Limited availability of lands, poor land quality and poor access to the available lands are the current problems faced in establishing such plantations. S. album research has been stated recently in Sri Lanka and studies on oil quantity and quality, seed germination and seedling hosts were already completed
Manel DPK, Perera S. Factors affecting children’s education in urban settlement communities inColombo. Annual Research Symposium, University of Colombo. 2013.Abstract
It is widely evident that parental socio-economic factors significantly contribute to their children’s human capital investment and well-being. Parental occupation and education are two key factors in decision making towards their children’s education. It is evident that the lack of parental awareness and low socio-economic environment lead children to engage in child labour without continuing their education. In addition, children’s poor commitment towards education will create a lack of protection and vulnerability within the community. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the factors associated with children’s decreased participation in secondary and tertiary level education in urban settlement communities. The study is based on both qualitative and quantitative data gathered from two selected urban settlement communities in the Colombo district. The sample size is 100 households with children of age 5-18. In addition, 10 case studies will be analyzed. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are applied for the quantitative data while content analyses are made for the qualitative data. The findings reveal that more than 90% per cent of the parents had low levels of education (below G.C.E. Ordinary level) which had a significant impact on their children’s schooling and attitudes towards education. In addition, a majority of children who were aged 15-19 responded that they had lower intentions to continue education due to their parents’ lower economic background. However, younger children who were aged 10-14 had higher intentions to complete their education up to G.C.E. O/L. Young children’s positive attitudes towards education were associated with the intervention programmes which are being conducted by the government organizations in these locations. Furthermore, results make it evident that parental occupation also negatively affected their children’s intention towards higher education. The qualitative findings also discovered that several community and environmental factors such as poverty, drug addiction, lack of awareness and encouragement, lack of resources and facilities, and parental attitudes towards education largely contributed to school dropouts and children’s decreased intention to continue education. * Financial assistance from the University of Colombo is acknowledged.  
Infringement of Child Rights: An Examination to some Interrelated Child Problems and Analysis of Legal Measures Enforced to Prohibit Child Problems in South Asia. International Research Conference in Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHS) . 2013:28.
Reality of Caste and Race Differences in Societies: A Mathematical Approach. International Research Conference in Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHS) . 2013:36.
2011
Stature comparison of prehistoric people at Bellan-bandi Palassa and Sigriya-Potana in Sri Lanka. . Australian Archaeological Association Annual Conference . 2011;Paper 58.
2010
Gamage YMM, Subasinghe SMCUP, Hettiarachchi DS. Change of seed germination rate with storage time of Santalum album L.(Indian sandalwood) seeds. 15th International Annual Forestry and Environment Symposium. 2010;15:279-281.Abstract
Not like other trees species, Indian sandalwood (S. album) nurseries needs more space due to the requirement of spaces for seedling hosts and field hosts in addition to the space required for the sandalwood seedlings. Therefore the number of seedlings that can be raised in a sandalwood nursery is comparatively low. Moreover, sandalwood seeds can be obtained only twice per year and due to those reasons, storage of seeds becomes a necessity. The dried sandalwood seeds are mostly stored in cotton bags. The aim of the current study was to identify the change of germination rate with the storage period under the above mentioned storage method. For this purpose, seeds collected soon after falling to the ground were stored in cotton bags after preliminary cleaning. Then the seeds were germinated on weekly basis after a pre-treatment with 0.05% gibberelic acid (GA3). Water was used instead of GA3 for the control experiment. As the storage time increased it was observed that the number of seeds germinated decreased. The maximum germination percentage of >80% was observed when the storage period was 3 weeks. Germination of 50% was achieved at the 7th week of storage and the germination rate was zero percent after 28 weeks of storage under the GA3 treatment. The control experiment indicated comparatively a lower germination rate than the treatment with the GA3.
Lankathillake MA, Subasinghe SMCUP. Changes of nutrient contents of teak seedlings (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) under different compost treatments. International Annual Forestry and Environment Symposium. 2010;15:259-264.Abstract
The present study was conducted to identify the changes in nutrient contents in teak seedlings with the application of different types of nutrients along with compost. Compost was applied as compost alone, compost with calcium (Dolomite), with phosphorus (Triple Supper Phosphate, i.e, TSP) and with both calcium and phosphorus (Dolomite and TSP). In order to identify the nutrient changes; nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations in leaves of teak seedlings under different treatments were analysed before and after 3 months of compost application. According to the results, nitrogen content in leaves of all treatments after 3 months of application were lower than that in leaves before the application of compost. The differences in phosphorus and potassium concentrations in leaves were the highest when compost was applied with TSP. The highest magnesium concentration was also observed under compost treatment with TSP. Among all the treatments, higher calcium differences were observed when compost was applied with both TSP and Dolomite, compost with Dolomite and compost with TSP respectively. The above observations showed that the application of different types of compost affect the nutrient contents of teak plants in different manner. However, application of compost with TSP showed the highest amounts of both potassium and magnesium amounts and a higher calcium amounts in plants.
2009
and Kanthilatha W. S. P. Y. N., Chandimal K. M. YASGG. Comparison of reconstructed stature of prehistoric populations in Bellan-bandi Palassa and Sigiriya-Potana in Sri Lanka. 50th Anniversary Academic Conference. 2009;Paper 26.
Global economic problems: peace and environment. Poster Presentation, 50th Anniversary Academic Conference, 11-12 December, 2009. 2009:23-24.
Understanding the proper role of the state to enhance economic development and control of present global economic crisis. 50th Anniversary Academic Conference, 10-12 December, 2009. 2009:36-37.

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