Publications by Type: Conference Proceedings

2016
Jayasundara RM, Ranatunga K. Macrofouling faunal assemblage in Hambantota port. 21st International Forestry and Environment Symposium [Internet]. 2016. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Invasive species recognized as one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity and  biofouling on submerged structures within a port environments is one the major pathways of invasions by Non Indigenous Species (NIS).  Early detection and monitoring of such deleterious organisms since control in nearly impossible once established. The present work is a baseline study for biofouling faunal assemblage in Hambantota Port. The study consisted of two stages; initial sampling for investigating existing biofouling assemblage and review sampling after 10 months in order to monitor the changes in community structure. Sampling followed an international protocol developed by Center for Research on Introduced Marine Pest (CRIMP). Samples were scraped from submerged hard substrata in 12 sampling sites with the assistance from divers. Organisms in scraped samples were identified to the nearest taxonomic level using taxonomic guides and databases. All together 90 species were recorded during the study. Among them, 72 species were recorded within the baseline sampling and additional 18 during review sampling. Highest number of species recorded from phylum Mollusca (54) followed by Arthropoda (11), Annelida (11), Chordata (5), Cnidaria (4) and Echinodermata (3) and Bryozoa (2). Balanus amphitrite, Balanus tintinnabulum, were the most common species in baseline sampling while Chthamalus sp.1 and Cellana radiata in the review sampling. Balanus tintinnabulum, Clypidina notata, Cellana radiata, Thais echinata, Harmoniconus parvatus and Saccostrea cucullata were the most common species found in both sampling.     In baseline sampling highest number of species was recorded from Oil Pier (31) while least number (1) was recorded in the Outer Harbour Artificial Island. In review sampling highest species richness (12) recorded in West Bank while least species richness (5) was recorded within the West Breakwater. The most noteworthy finding is that eight globally known invasive species which include, Rapana venosa, Phallusia nigra, Perna perna, Brachidontes pharaonis, Balanus amphitrite, Balanus reticulates, Balanus trigonus and, Schizoporella errata were recorded. Among them Rapana venosa was recorded only in review sampling and rest in baseline sampling. Key words: Biofouling, Non-Indigenous species, Baseline study, Hambantota Port  
Peiris DJ, Amaratunge S, Amarasinghe HK. A MICRO LEVEL APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY: CASE OF SRI LANKAN ENTREPRENEURS. International Conference of Japanese Graduates’ Alumni Association in Sri Lanka. 2016:57 – 63.Abstract
1. INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship leads to better performance. All the entrepreneurs extend a considerablecontribution directly or indirectly to the economic development (Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce University of Sri Jayewardenepura, 2013). Entrepreneurship is thereforeconnected with the creation of new business ventures, the introduction of new innovative ideas and technologies, and the readiness to take the risks (Mazzarol, 2004). ‘Knowledge Economy (KE) is an economy that based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor of prosperity and economic growth is the superior knowledge capitalization’(Tocan, 2012). Sustainable competitive advantage can be offered through the driving forces of economic growth, productivity growth and resources. There is no any universally accepted definition for knowledge economy. The World Bank (1996) introduced knowledge economy framework which includes four pillars and contributes to the economic growth and development. As a developing country Sri Lanka needs sustainable entrepreneurs who can boost the Sri Lankan economy. Even if one becomes entrepreneur either by education or by inheritance, it is important to know how to survive in a turbulent business environment. The main purpose of this study is to analyse awareness of entrepreneurs about KE when managing entrepreneurial ventures. This study has used a more differentiated approach than earlierstudies which have mainly focused on the knowledge based economy assessment for a country. Therefore this study aims to understand the entrepreneurs’ perception towards KE to make their entrepreneurial ventures a success.   2. LITERATURE REVIEW KBE uses knowledge in the production process as an input to generate knowledge intensive goods and services. In a KBE a firm’s growth significantly depends on three factors such as knowledge accumulation, technical change and the innovative activities (Seddighi, 2012). According to the framework introduced by Seddighi (2012), there is a significant relationship between firm’s core competence and firm’s research and development activities. It is believed that existence of core competence creates the research and development activities to develop core competencies over the time. That is firm’s research and development activities depend on the level of understanding about core competence in a firm.  When contrast with the Singapore KE, Sri Lanka should make stronger its R & D and grow innovations in its universities. Sri Lanka should create an innovative culture with a high protection of property rights. More focus should be given on university and private sector R & D activities (The World Bank, 2008). With the purpose of attracting creative talents, Singapore has created both supportive and encouraging environment to innovation and enterprises. The project called “One North” which launched in 2001 is becoming world class R & D hub for the scientists and entrepreneurs who are working in the biochemical science, ICT and media (The World Bank, 2008). World Bank stated that Sri Lanka should create a research environment similar to Singapore on a smaller scale by encouraging researchers to interact each other. When compared with China Sri Lanka does not have many challenges in developing domestic innovation system due to favorable political regime. ‘Sri Lanka is having one of the most liberal economies in South Asia’ (The World Bank, 2008). What Sri Lanka needs to get from China is that having a closed economy for a longer period will make difficulties to overcome when transforming country in to a KE.New firms creation helps to a country’s economic growth and diversification. As discussed by Mayer (2013 cited by Thornton, 1999) new firms creation can be identified in two main ways. First one is the Supply Side Perspective which is based on the individual entrepreneurs who influenced by the family background, motivation and skills. Second perspective is known as Demand side for entrepreneurship based on the opportunities available in the economy, resources and market situations.Based on the case studies conducted in Hewlett Packard (HP) and Micron Technology firms operated in United States concluded that entrepreneurial firm formation is influenced by the types of products, production process and the corporate culture in an organization (Mayer, 2013).   3. OBJECTIVE This is mainly to carry out micro level analysis to identify link between the business environment and the four micro level performances. This study aims to explore how far micro level KE factors affect to the entrepreneurial ventures. Problem statement of this study can be identified as “What is the perception of entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka on the application of KE at micro level in the business world?”     4. METHODS This study is an exploratory study in the form of a case study. Data strategy was qualitative based on interview based data. Data analysis has adopted descriptive narrative presentation of interview data. The model was developed to be assessed based on four micro level factors introduced by the OECD which has few differences compared with the World Bank framework. Regulatory pillar which explains under World Bank framework is not available in OECD model. Instead of that firms creativeness and entrepreneurship is incorporated to the model. All other three pillars, Human resource, ICT, and innovation, are examined in both models using different variables. These Four micro level factors which are essential to successful KBE at business level were measured using entrepreneurial ventures. Selected business ventures’ situation is assessed through four micro level factors that are crucial to successful KBE. Institutional type of case studies was carried out to analyse the micro level performance of entrepreneurial ventures as measured by the following four pillars. They are 1) Enhancing human capital and realizing its potential, 2) Seizing the benefits of information and communications technology (ICT), 3) Exploiting and diffusing science and technology and 4) Fostering firm creation and entrepreneurship. The data is mainly obtained from a survey based interviews through a detailed questionnaire. Both quantitative and qualitative variables are examined. As secondary sources, annual reports of the selected companies, financial records, published materials, and various types of documents were considered. For the purpose of collecting empirical data, structured survey based interviews were conducted for the selected two entrepreneurs. Purposive sampling technique is used to select the case participants. However entrepreneurs who engage in manufacturing sector are selected. Both entrepreneurs have won national entrepreneurship award given by the Federation of Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Sri Lanka (FCCISL) in recent years. It is the institute who provide best Sri Lankan entrepreneur award annually. Thus detailed questionnaire was used covering all Human capital, ICT, innovation and entrepreneurship aspects of the organizations. Further general view points of the entrepreneurs towards the knowledge economy was examined through semi structured interviews. Conversational recording was taken with the permission of the respondents due to the ethical issues that has to be addressed. To conduct these case studies, two victorious entrepreneurs who run business ventures very successfully were selected randomly. The two entrepreneurs selected were Nature’s Beauty Creation Limited and RaigamPvt Ltd. 5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION It was revealed that entrepreneurs in both companies follow good human resource management practices, sound ICT facilities, well established R & D centers and good creative and entrepreneurial environment in the company. Education level maters significantly, when establishing KE framework at micro level. However, even though top management in the NBC and Raigamwere not well aware about the concept of KE, they have implemented relevant four factors to a certain extent within the companies. It is understood that without having such an environment, companies will not be able to survive in today’s competitive world.Both companies admitted that they should have sound ICT facilities to increase the efficiency in operations. HoweverNBC is not an IT based company; therefore it does not want to specialize in ICT facilities. On the other hand Raigam admitted that having geographically dispersed sales staff, it is very important to have good communication system such as PDA technology when managing the sales around the country. Although they have different ideologies in the ICT filed, they have same philosophy in the R & D sector. Both entrepreneurs agreed that without having innovations time to time company will not be survived. In order tocreate new products it is vital to have its own research and development centre. Knowledge creation and dissemination is the main idea in KE. That reflects entrepreneurs always try to create new knowledge; that is new product based on their experiments. This should be matched with the market requirement. If not created new knowledge will not be accepted by the people and it will become a failure product. Therefore, importance of science and technology stream is well understood by both entrepreneurs. Considerable amount is spent annually for the R & D activities to find new knowledge. Entrepreneurs believe that, skilled human resource is needed to improve the efficiency in operations. Especially in the new product development process, major contribution is coming from the top management who has post graduate qualifications. In NBC, science based degree is a quality requirement to enter into the top management. Because company believes that, medicinal plant based production requires high level of quality assurance.       6. CONCLUSION In this case study analysis, it reveals that both firms are well concerned about R & D activities in order to create new knowledge. Companies spend reasonable amount of their revenue for the R & D activities annually.  They believe that, profitability can be improved through the introduction of new products rather cutting their expenses. Therefore, in order to carry out experiments in the laboratory both companies are having good researches. Especially in the NBC, as a herbal cosmetic manufacturing company, they highly concentrate the outcomes of R&D activities. Raigam, as a fast food manufacturing company always tries to create new food items which have both required amount of nutrition and the quality. As per the qualitative analysis, it can be concluded that, management of NBC and Raigam is implementing KE pillars at a certain level within the firms. However, NBC should be more concentrated on the improvements in ICT facilities and should be given more freedom to the employees to suggest new products. That is mainly because; application of ICT facilities in NBC is poor compared to the Raigam in the fields such as monitoring sales people.Both firms have creative entrepreneurial culture which always encourages innovations and new idea. Continuous R & D activities will help to create new products and processes which can be useful to increase the profitability of the firm. Raigam is always doing market research in order to understand the changes in the economy and NBC is more towards to the research on medicinal plants in order to create new herbal cosmetics to attract customers.When considering the entrepreneurs’ perception towards KBE, even though management does not have theoretical knowledge about KE, they practice the same ideology when managing company’s operations. Thus, it is suggested that understanding about KE pillars in more depth will contribute to improve their entrepreneurial ventures. Creation of knowledge is not solely valuable if it is not disseminated throughout the population. Therefore, finding should spread to the economy by protecting its credibility within the firm. However as stated by Samantha, existing administration system of intellectual property is not efficient. Entrepreneurs do not likely to obtain patent rights for their innovations due to the lack of transparency and the protectionism in the administration system. This might be a criticism to enhance the creativity and the entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka.   REFERENCES Armstrong, P., & Tomes, A. (2000). Entrepreneurship in Science: Case Studies from Liquid Crystal Application. Critical Studies in Innovation, 133-147 (18). Ather, S.M., & Nimalathasam, B. (2010). Encouraging Entrepreneurship and Its impact on Economic Development in the Emerging Economy: An over view. In B.Nimalathasan, Entrepreneurship : Perspectives and Strategies. Devi Publication. Ballot, G., & Taymaz, E. (1997). The dynamics of RMS in a micro-to-macro model:The role of training, learning and innovation. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 7, 435-457. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. (2013). Annual Report.Colombo, Sri Lanka. Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce University of Sri Jayewardenepura. (2013). Selected case studies of National Entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka. International Conference on Business Management (ICBM). Hewapathirana, I. (2014). Bridging, bonding and linking global entrepreneurs: the case of Sri Lanka. Human Resource Development International, 17 (2), 164-182. Kanellos, N.S. (2013). Exploring the characteristics of Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship in Greek high-technology sectors. Kaya, N. (2006). The impact of human resource management practices and corporate entrepreneurship on firm performance: evidence from Turkish firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management , 2074-2090. Lan, L., Eliza Ching, Y.T., & Ling Zhao, J. (2009). An Empirical Study of Corporate Entrepreneurship in Hospitality Companies. International Journal of Hospitality &         Tourism Administration, 10 (3). Leydesdorff, L. (2006). While a Storm is Raging on the Open Sea. Regional Development in a Knowledge-based Economy. Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, 189-203. Lundstrom, A., & Zhou, C. (2011). Promoting innovation based on social sciences and technologies: the prospect of a social innovation park. The European Journal of         Social Science Research, 24, 133-149. Mayer, H. (2013). Firm Building and Entrepreneurship in Second-Tier High- Tech Regions.European Planning Studies, 9 (21), 37-41. Mazzarol, T. (2004). Strategic Management of Small Firms:A Proposed Framework for Entrepreneurial Ventures. Mcquaid, R.W. (2002). Entrepreneurship and ICT Industries: Support from Regional and Local Policies. Regional Studies, 36 (8), 909-919. Managing Director, Natur's Beauty Creations Limited. KE Perception of the Entrepreunure.Interviewd on 15.09.2015 by D.J. Peris. Horana, Sri Lanka. Managing Director, Raigam Group of Companes. KE Perception of the Entrepreunure.Interviewd on 21.09.2015 by D.J. Peris. Horana, Sri Lanka. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2007). Micro-Policies for Growth and Productivity, Paris Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (1996). The Knowledge Based-Economy, Paris. Perera, M., Amaratunge, S., & Amarasinghe, H. (2013). An analysis of Knowledge Economy in Sri Lanka : A Regional Perspective. Seddighi, H. (2012). A Model of a Firm's Innovation and Growth in a Knowledge Based Economy. Journal of Knowledge Economy. Suetens, S. (2002). R&D Subsidies and Production Effects of R&D Personnel: Evidence from the Flemish Region.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,    11. Tang, G., Wei, L.Q., E.S., & Y.C. (2014). How effective human resource management promotes corporate entrepreneurship: evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16. The Department of National Planning. (2010). Sri Lanka The Emerging Wonder of Asia. Ministry of Finance and Planning, Colombo. The kingdom of Raigam. (n.d.). The kingdom of Raigam. Retrievedfrom http://www.raigam.lk [Accessed 02 July 2015] The World Bank (2008). Building the Sri Lankan Knowledge Economy.World Bank Public Information Center, Colombo. Tocan, M.C. (2012). Knowledge Based Economy Assessment. Journal of Knowledge management, Economics and Information Technology. 5. Westeren, K.I. (2008). On the Knowledge Economy. The Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy. 15 World Bank. (n.d.). World Bank. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ srilanka/overview.[Accessed 02 December 2015].  
Bundschuh J, Herath I, Vithanage M. Natural arsenic and its distribution in global geothermal systems. Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment (As2016), June 19-23, 2016, Stockholm, Sweden. 2016:29.
Manel DPK. Re-migration intention among urban migrants in the Gampaha District*. International Research Conference, Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo. 2016.Abstract
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the past decades has emphasized that migration plays a vital role in urban population dynamics. Since 1977, the Gampaha District of the Western Province has become a popular urban-ward migration destination and a significant proportion of young people have migrated for employment especially to the Free Trade Zones (FTZs). Many studies have focused on determinants of urban migration. However, research on re-migration intention of urban migrants seems inadequate. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the issues faced by urban migrants and factors that influence urban-ward migration and re-migration intentions. ' The study is based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered from selected urban communities in the Gampaha urban areas. Data were obtained from a sample survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households. Qualitative information was gathered using in-depth interviews. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used for quantitative data while content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Findings revealed that the male-headed households were higher than their female counterparts. More than half of the respondents (60%) had only secondary or primaiy education. A higher percentage of more educated migrants had an intention to re-migrate due to disturbances faced in current urban living. Urban to urban migration (59.7%) was higher than rural to urban migration. Factors such as marriage, development programs, family reasons and respondents’ age at migration were the major factors influencing urban migration. The qualitative analysis also found that inadequate social amenities and poor economic backgrounds lead to urban-ward migration. However, migrants intend to re-migrate in search of more comfortable livelihoods after experiencing negative consequences of migration. Findings suggest that improving physical infrastructure and human capital utilization and decentralizing public services and institutions in the rural contexts would reduce the negative consequences of urban-ward migration. Keywords: factors; influencing; urban migration; households; re-migration Acknowledgement: The author would like to thank the University of Colombo for providing research Grant (AP/3/2012/CG/07) to undertake this research. This abstract is also published in the Proceedings Book of the University of Colombo Annual Research Symposium 2016,11 October 2016
Samarakoon M. Road accidents in Sri Lanka: Correlations of Psychological, Cultural and Geographical factors in Eastern Province. Urban transportation: Issues & Challenges. 2016;10:32.Abstract
In present, the road accidents can be considered as one of the highly threatening causes of deaths. In Sri Lankan context fatal accidents are rising in considerable manner according to the statistics in year 2015, it is recorded 2801 deaths and 2590 fatal accidents in Sri Lanka. Government, Civil Societies and all the responsible parties in Sri Lanka have implemented various strategies to prevent accidents in addition enforcement of traffic laws. Even though there is no reduce accidents and it is reported majority of accidents are occurring in Eastern Province. The persuading factor of this study to identify whether there is some special reasons or courses are affecting for accidents in Eastern Province? If it is so what are they? How those factors are special or deference than other provinces or part in country? What are the preventive factors or strategies can be applied? In addressing the above, this study has done at Akkarepaththu police area where the accidents are occurring with higher rate in Ampara Driscrit in Easten province and sample were selected from two ways.  First, randomly selected 117 public, drivers, police officers, students and other communities in the area. Data were gathered through Questionnaires, interviews and Focus group discussions. At the second stage used Forum Theater activities specially did chain of street drama in congested city areas to focusing massage of road accidents.Through this drama research team had communicated and built an image among community about the accidents. And also used a questioners, focus group discussion with participants. Motor cycles and three wheelers have been the major causes of road accidents in the area with a percentage of 75% and 21% respectively. There is a strong connection with psychological, cultural and geographical factors with accidents and it appears through the factors: Women used to sitting by side owing to their cultural factors on the motor cycles, all most all are in Muslim community and they claim their ownership in geographical resources to their way, so that Muslim community act as disobediently with law enforcement, military attitudes and heroism are directly and indirectly affected for accidents in Eastern. In addition it is observed that the juveniles and young men do not hesitate to break the road rules in the area. Proper guidance and awareness with implementing law must be focused with this situation were seen as the suggested solutions for the road accidents in the area. 
Malwatta Y, Amaratunge S, Withanawasam MPK. A STUDY OF CONSUMER CREDIT BEHAVIOR IN SRI LANKA GOLD MARKET. International Conference of Japanese Graduates’ Alumni Association in Sri Lanka. 2016:6 – 10.Abstract
1. INTRODUCTION According to the Central Bank statistics 2009 - 2014, it can be noted that there is a gradual increase in the preference of gold loans by the borrowers as a means of consumer credit, during last 5 years period in Sri Lanka.This increase in gold loans implies several economicoutcomes that can be anticipated in the future in credit market as well as in gold market in Sri Lanka. Corresponding to the gradual increase in preference of gold loans by the borrowers, the lender starts to raise the loan to value ratio or gold loan advances they grant while reducing the interest rates and encouraging more gold loan borrowings by creating a competition in the credit market. Through this encouragement, people who have various borrowing behaviors come in to the market and if most of the borrowers are in a vulnerable position and if the repayment ability is ambiguous, then loan defaulting rate will enhance in this credit channel. When loans are defaulted, lenders try to cover up their loan values through selling out the collateral. Since the common collateral is gold for these types of loans, when increasing supply of the gold, the price of gold will decline while creating a problem to the gold business as well. Gold price decline will not only be affected to the gold business but also for the financial organizations who keep their reserves in gold. They also are punished by declining the value of their gold investments creating a path for a domestic financial crisis. Therefore, apart from the mere credit supply increase in return to borrowers’ preference, lenders must have a good understanding on purpose of borrowing, repayment ability and their borrowing behavior in general to avoid above mentioned type situations. Because if lenders are aware on their borrower, they can adjust their terms and conditions on gold loan and reduce possible losses arise in not repaying. On the other hand, if lenders have a good understanding on borrowing patterns, they can design variety of gold loan products by adjusting tenure, interest rate and loan to value ratio. However, in Sri Lanka, these types of studies are lacking on gold loan market. Thus, through this study, it is expected to examine the characteristics and general borrowing behavior in Sri Lankan gold loan borrowers to render an understanding on their borrowing practices to the lenders by fulfilling that need. In addition to that, it demonstrates the importance of studying the participants and their behaviour in gold loan market to utilize this credit facility effectively in the development of the Sri Lankan economy by identifying the borrowing segments in the gold loan market. Therefore, the results of this research will not only be beneficial for gold loan lenders and financial institutes but also to the policy makers in deploying effective credit sources to the various segments in the society. Therefore, this study provides a clear view on gold loan borrowers and their behavior as a solution for prevailing knowledge deficiency in Sri Lankan gold market.   2. LITERATURE REVIEW Churiwal and Shreni (2012) have carried out a study on Indian Gold loan market examining the features of gold loans, loan interest and gold loan values. The findings of that research reflected that 65 percent of the gold loan market is with rural area in India. The study also discovered that, the organized sector is challenging the large unorganized gold loan market dominated by pawnbrokers and moneylenders, with non-bank financial companies leading the pack due to simpler approval and disbursal processes, flexible products and better accessibility. In contrast to the Indian study, a research conductedbyGrashof (2002) on People’s Bank Pawning and Savings Centers in Sri Lanka discovered that pawning is more common in urban areasAnd, whereas saving is popular in rural areas in Sri Lanka. It also revealed that women make more use of pawning facilities than men in Sri Lanka.Pawning is not only a product for the poorlately; even business people have started to make use of pawning. Pawning has become the most important credit facility in terms of outreach to the poorer population (Grashof, 2002). The credit purpose is not fixed, providing quick and easy access to liquidity for various needs. Discretion is guaranteed as the transaction takes place in a separate room or behind closed curtains (Grashof, 2002).   3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to investigate the consumer credit behavior in Sri Lankan Gold Loan Market; the specific objectives are to assess the characteristics of gold loan borrowers and to assess consumer borrowing behavior in gold loan market.   4. METHODS The target groups of this study are gold loan borrowers. The reason for aiming this sector is that lack of studying the behavior of these gold loan borrowers who have raised the value for gold loans in personal loan market during recent years. The study is mainly based on primary data gathered from a survey. The data was collected with a self-completion questionnaire to maintain the confidentiality and reliability of the information gathered. But the researcher had to interview some respondents with their consent in filling the questionnaire due to language problems. On the other hand, the data has been gathered from a non- probability sampling method: convenient sampling methodwhere those who are willingly participate in this research were selected. Data collection activities has been conducted among sixty gold loan clients on the basis of convenient sampling from Kaduwela area in Colombo district, Western province, Sri Lanka. Eventually, out of sixty distributed questionnaires, two were rejected, due to the problem of incompletion. By conducting this research in a semi-urbanized area as Kaduwela, the results can be generalized for both urban and rural borrowers. The researcher made sure that the sample is consists with gold loan borrowers by distributing the self-completion questionnaires in the premises of six gold loan lending institutes located in Kaduwela area. Gold loans providing institutes can be mainly identified as banking institutes and non-banking institutes and due to inability in accessing to banking pawning divisions because of the security and confidentiality maintained in banking premises, the researcher has used only a sample from private gold loan lending institutes for collecting data.   5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Analyzing the characteristics of the gold loan borrowers, it can be noticed that majority of the borrowers who engaged in gold loans are female while most of the borrowers came under the age limit of 41 -50.  On the other hand, greater part of the borrowers is married and completed their education up to G.C.E. A/L. On top of that, most of the gold loan borrowers are under Rs 15,000 – Rs. 30,000 income slab. According to the survey analysis, it was identified that these borrowers were mainly borrowing for consumption purposes and investment purposes. As per those two purposes, the borrowers’ borrowing behavior is explained under five borrowing influencing variables such as over indebtedness, financial literacy, subjective norm towards consumer credit usage and perceived behavioral control. With the use of regression model, it was proved that there is a significant positive relationship between over indebtedness, financial literacy, subjective norm towards consumer credit usage and perceived behavioral control with the average gold loan advance taken for consumption purposes. Conversely, regression model built up for investment purpose borrowing further demonstrated that there is a relationship between over indebtedness, financial literacy, attitude, towards consumer credit usage and perceived behavioral control and average gold loan advance taken for investment purpose. In addition to that, borrowing topologies introduced by Worton, Grew, &Jessett (2014) on Consumer credit behaviour which is consisted with three borrowing topologies such as Survival borrowing, Lifestyle borrowing and Reluctant borrowing has been used to present the borrowing behaviour of people who take loans for consumption purposes. On the other hand the borrowing behaviour of people who take loans to invest in business is explained by another three borrowing topologies such as Lifestyle borrowing, Reluctant borrowing and Long Investment Borrowing.   6. CONCLUSION In summarizing the above behavioral models, it can be noticeable that the journeys throughout the borrowing topologies will be changed according to the changes arise in the debt level, financial literacy, attitude and norms towards consumer credit usage and the perceived behavioral control of the borrower. In the overall aspect, borrowers who take gold loans for investment purposes possess satisfactory financial management skills and repaying capability than consumption purpose borrowers. Therefore, it can be recommended to prioritize lending for investment purpose borrowers, because it generates more profit to the gold loan lenders while it reduces their risk level. Since those credits are utilized in investments, it will create a value to the economy. In addition to that, it is observed that there is a possibility in promoting gold loans as a source of credit for the development of low and middle income earners’ lives as they are the main income categories who use this source of credit. And, it is important to note that there is a possibility in utilizing gold loans as a source of credit for women empowerment since this credit product records a higher accessibility for women. At the same time, it is important to note that with the promotion of gold loan as a source of credit for women and low income house holders for investment purposes with a parallel change in borrowers’ debt level, attitude and norms towards consumer credit usage, financial literacy and perceived behavioural control will guide them towards higher standard of living. In conversely, borrowing for consumption purposes should be discouraged as it drag them to an over indebted situation.       REFERENCES Anderloni, L., &Vandone, D. (2010). Risk of Over indebtedness and Behavioural Factors. Milano. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. (2013). Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka 2013.Statistics Department of Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. (2014). Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka 2014.Statistics Department of Central Bank, Sri Lanka. Chang, Y.C.R., & Hanna, S. (1992). Consumer credit search behaviour.Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics, 5(3), 207-227. Churiwal, A., &Shreni, A. (2012). Surveying the Indian Gold Loan Market. Cognizant 20- 20 Insight . Grashof, L. (2002). Reaching the Poor Clients of Sri Lanka; People’s Bank Pawning and Savings Centers. Guardia, N.D. (2002). Consumer Crdit in the European Union.ECRI research report no. 1. Kamleitner, B., &Kirchler, E. (2007). Consumer credit use: a process model and literature review. Elsevier Masson SAS . Lusardi, A., &Tufano, P. (2008). Debt Literacy, Financial Experiences and Overindebtedness. Naerum, K. (2012). Consumer Credit Usage and Over-Indebtedness in low income house holds. Cape Town. Nair, G.G., & Davy, D.J. (2014). A Study On The Attitude Towards Gold Loan.Facts For You . Skully, M.T. (1994). The Development of the Pawnshop Industry in East Asia, 73 Venkateswaran, D.N. (2012). Indian Consumers Towards Gold Loan Market.Indian Streams Research Journal . Worton, S., Grew, S., &Jessett, C. (2014). Consumer Credit Research: Low Income Consumers. OptimisaResearch . Tooth, D.R. (2012).Behavioural Economics and the Regulation of Consumer Credit. Sapere Research Group . Venkateswaran, D.N. (2012). Indian Consumers Towards Gold Loan Market.Indian Streams Research Journal . Worton, S., Grew, S., &Jessett, C. (2014). Consumer Credit Research: Low Income Consumers, OptimisaResearch .  
Holt A, Bocharova V, Cheng S, Kisliuk A, Imel A, Etampawala T, White T, Saito T, Sikes N, Dadmun M. Tailoring Glassy Dynamics on the Nanoscale: Covalent Bonding versus Physical Adsorption in Polymer-based Nanocomposites. APS Meeting Abstracts. 2016.
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Research Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population '■growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key "■issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban. migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
Deerasinha MK, Perera S. Urban family migration and its effects on the destination household well-being: A case study of urban locations in the Colombo district. International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016.Abstract
Literature on family migration towards urban locations in developing countries emphasizes that family migration plays a vital role to make effects on the entire society. Among these effects, socio- economic well-being of migrant families, urban population growth, urban economic development etc. are the main reasons. As in many other developing countries, socio-economic well-being issue of migrant families is one of key issues faced by most urban migrants in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study explores the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of socio-economic wellbeing at the destination. The quantitative data of this study was collected from a sample survey by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire covering 400 migrant households from four urban areas of the Colombo district. The demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors of migrant families were been identified by applying 'univariate and bivariate analyses while the factors related to socio­economic wellbeing were analyzed using factor analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The study found that the highest proportion of migrant household heads (22%) were between 45- 49 age group. Male-headed migrants (89%) are higher than female counterparts. Out of migrant household heads majority are Sinhalese. Most male (29 %) and female (41%) respondents have secondary level education. Although, most of the young age household heads have migrated to urban areas since their marriage and employment purposes, middle aged migrants have decided to move because of other purposes like their children’s education. Furthermore, more than half of the migrant household heads were engaged in informal employments. Although migrant households have been able to significantly improve their economic wellbeing within the living time at destination, the qualitative findings indicated that urban family migration effects to increase socioeconomic wellbeing issues in urban areas such as house congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, air, water and noise pollution etc. Hence, these findings suggest that the government should decentralize urban institutions making the public services available in sub-urban and rural areas as well. Ultimately, the government or non-government authorities should try to introduce appropriate policy and programs to overcome social inequalities among urban displaced migrants’ and social and economic wellbeing issues of urban migrants who are engaged in the informal sector employments. Keywords: Socio-economic well-being, Household, Migrant families
Ilankoon IMPS, Goonewardena CSE, Perera PPR, Fernandopulle R. Women’s experiences of vaginal complaints in Estates communities in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka. 24th Triennial conference of Commonwealth Medical Association. 2016:45-46.
2015
Manel K. Determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Sri Lanka: the case studyof Gampaha District. Annual Research Symposium, Department of Demography, University of Colombo. 2015.Abstract
Similar to many other developing countries, Sri Lanka’s internal migration can be classified into two types - inter-district migration and intra-district migration. Literature on internal migration often emphasizes that these migration patterns are mainly determined by a number of socio-demographic, economic and political factors. However, there is a lack of micro level research on what factors determine such migration patterns. Hence, this study explores the determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Gampaha district. The study is based on survey data gathered from three urban areas in Gampaha district. Data were gathered through a random sample of400 respondents. Both descriptive analysis and logistic regression model were employed in this study. The findings reveal that around 12 per cent of migrants had experienced inter-district migration while a large majority, approximately 82 per cent had experienced intra-district migration. It is identified that more than three fourth of intra-district migrant were ever married (82%). Majority of intra-district migrants were in the 30-54 age group while the highest proportion of inter-district migrants was from the age group 25-29 years. Logistic regression results further demonstrated that migrant’s ethnicity, main economic activity and household size positively affected intra-district migration. However, the selection of migrant’s destination differed significantly by the economic activities that the migrant engaged in and the reasons for migration. These results suggest that the consequences of inter-­district and intra-district migration need to be investigated separately when addressing internal migration related issues in Sri Lanka. Keywords: Internal migration, intra-district migration, inter-district migration 
Determination of Financial Risk Tolerance among Different Household Sectors in Sri Lanka. International Research Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences- 2015. 2015:184.
Ilankoon IMPS, Goonewardena CSE, Perera PPR, Fernandopulle R. Different Cultural Practices and Health Seeking Behaviours Associated with Vaginal Discharge. Peradeniya University International Research Sessions (iPURSE 2015). 2015.
Manel K, Punpuing S, Perera S. Economic Consequences of Urban Migration on Households: A Case Study of Urban Locations in Sri Lanka. International Conference on Promoting Socio-economic Equity in South Asia: Challenges and Prospects, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 2015.Abstract
Since more than three decades, urban migration in Sri Lanka is gradually increasing due to various reasons such as socio-economic problems, natural disasters, political and ethnic issues, cultural requirements etc. As a result of urban migration, economic consequences are affecting the households as well as the entire society. This study aims to explore and estimate the economic consequences of urban family migration at destination. This study is based on a sample survey collected through an administered questionnaire covering 414 migrant households from three urban areas of Kalutara district while qualitative data were gathered by using case studies. The factors related to economic consequences of migrants are analyzed by employing the multivariate analyses method. Analyses found that around two thirds of household heads have below secondary level of education. More than two thirds of migrant household heads were engaged in informal economic activities and more than half of households have no economic security. Results from the linear regression analysis also revealed that the migrant households have been able to significantly improve their household assets within the living time at destination. Furthermore, current savings of the household, household heads' education and migration pattern (temporary or permanent) were positively related with improvement in their household assets while household head's occupation and spouse occupation that belonged to the informal sector were negatively affected. In addition, the qualitative findings also shared that urban migration influence tended in the increase of the negative social and economic consequences such as traffic congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, health issues from pollution of air, water, noise and inadequate disposal system. This study suggests that future employment programs and awareness programs should focus on empowering especially migrant informal employees in urban communities. Keywords: Economic consequences, Urban, Migration, Households, Sri Lanka  
Manel KDP, Sunethra P. Economic Security issues among Urban Migrants in Sri Lanka. Annual Research Symposium, National Centre for Advanced Studies in Humanities & Social Sciences. 2015.Abstract
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the decades emphasizes that migration plays a vital role in urban population growth and which are shaped by number of social, economic and political factors. Migrant population in urban areas has been identified as vulnerable group with regard to in accessing land, housing, employment and other services. Like in many other countries, in Sri Lanka too, economic security issue is one of the key issues facing the urban migrant. Therefore, this study explores the economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of economic security which are important for policy. Migrant household is defined considering household in which the head of the household had migrated to an urban location six month prior to the date of survey. The study is based on both quantitative and qualitative data gathered in one urban location, Kalutara district in Sri Lanka. The socio-economic characteristics of migrants are examined by using the quantitative data collected through a sample survey which consists of 414 households. In addition, six case studies are used to identify issues faced by them during the migration process. The factors related to economic security of migrants are analyzed by using multivariate analysis.   The findings reveal that the more than half of migrants in the study area have experienced employment insecurity condition and it is correlated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Gender differences in employment security show that females had lower level of economic security compared with their male counterparts. Approximately two thirds of female migrants have engaged in informal economic activities. The multivariate logistic regression results suggest that migrant’s individual and household level factors, such as occupation category, level of education, the sector in which the migrant employed, migrant’s health condition, household expenditure and household servings are significant predictors of the likelihood of economic security. The qualitative findings also reveal that several environmental and political factors have contributed in creating migrant’s economic security related issues. These findings suggest that policy makers should pay their attention in developing policies and programmes to overcome economic security related issues among migrants especially on females in urban communities.     Key words: *Economic Security; urban Issues; Urban Migration.  
• Damayanthi BWR. Analyzing the Growth Correlates of Urban Informal Micro Entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka. 10th International Research Conference of Management & Finance. 2015.
• Damayanthi BWR. Assessing Entrepreneurship in Urban Micro Enterprises in Sri Lanka. 4th International Conference of Sri Lanka Forum of University Economists: Sri Lanka Economic Research Conference 2015. 2015.
• Damayanthi BWR. Factors Influencing Subjective Wellbeing among the Urban Poor in Sri Lanka. International Research Conference. 2015.
Damayanthi BWR, Premaratne G. Multi level analysis of urban poverty: Evidence from Sri Lanka. International conference on South Asian Economic Development: The Way Forward to be held in South Asian University. 2015.
Hettiarachchi S, Pires A. L2 Acquisition of Wh-Features and Syntactic Constraints: Evidence for Full-Access Approaches. Generative Approches to Language Acquisition (6), 2015 [Internet]. 2015;2015:48-59. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This paper investigates the L2 acquisition of wh-features and relevant constraints (Superiority and Subjacency) by Sinhala-English bilinguals in Sri Lanka. Using results from a Truth Value Judgment Task (TVT) and a scalar Grammaticality Judgment Task (GT), it is argued that advanced adult L2 speakers of English successfully acquire the uninterpretable wh-Q feature and relevant constraints in the target language despite their non-instantiation in overt syntax in L1-Sinhala. The results are consistent with other recent studies which report the successful adult L2 acquisition of new functional features in different grammatical domains (e.g., Campos-Dintrans, Pires & Rothman 2014; Foucart & Frenck-Mestre 2012). The results also support Full Access to UG principles and constraints in adult L2 syntax (White 2003), contra predictions of Representational Deficit Accounts in adult L2 acquisition (e.g., Hawkins & Hattori 2006; Tsimpli & Dimitrakopoulou 2007).

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