Similar to many other developing countries, Sri Lanka’s internal migration can be classified into two types - inter-district migration and intra-district migration. Literature on internal migration often emphasizes that these migration patterns are mainly determined by a number of socio-demographic, economic and political factors. However, there is a lack of micro level research on what factors determine such migration patterns. Hence, this study explores the determinants of inter-district and intra-district migration in Gampaha district. The study is based on survey data gathered from three urban areas in Gampaha district. Data were gathered through a random sample of400 respondents. Both descriptive analysis and logistic regression model were employed in this study. The findings reveal that around 12 per cent of migrants had experienced inter-district migration while a large majority, approximately 82 per cent had experienced intra-district migration. It is identified that more than three fourth of intra-district migrant were ever married (82%). Majority of intra-district migrants were in the 30-54 age group while the highest proportion of inter-district migrants was from the age group 25-29 years. Logistic regression results further demonstrated that migrant’s ethnicity, main economic activity and household size positively affected intra-district migration. However, the selection of migrant’s destination differed significantly by the economic activities that the migrant engaged in and the reasons for migration. These results suggest that the consequences of inter-district and intra-district migration need to be investigated separately when addressing internal migration related issues in Sri Lanka.
Keywords: Internal migration, intra-district migration, inter-district migration
Since more than three decades, urban migration in Sri Lanka is gradually increasing due to various reasons such as socio-economic problems, natural disasters, political and ethnic issues, cultural requirements etc. As a result of urban migration, economic consequences are affecting the households as well as the entire society. This study aims to explore and estimate the economic consequences of urban family migration at destination. This study is based on a sample survey collected through an administered questionnaire covering 414 migrant households from three urban areas of Kalutara district while qualitative data were gathered by using case studies. The factors related to economic consequences of migrants are analyzed by employing the multivariate analyses method.
Analyses found that around two thirds of household heads have below secondary level of education. More than two thirds of migrant household heads were engaged in informal economic activities and more than half of households have no economic security. Results from the linear regression analysis also revealed that the migrant households have been able to significantly improve their household assets within the living time at destination. Furthermore, current savings of the household, household heads' education and migration pattern (temporary or permanent) were positively related with improvement in their household assets while household head's occupation and spouse occupation that belonged to the informal sector were negatively affected. In addition, the qualitative findings also shared that urban migration influence tended in the increase of the negative social and economic consequences such as traffic congestion, alcoholism and drug abuse, health issues from pollution of air, water, noise and inadequate disposal system. This study suggests that future employment programs and awareness programs should focus on empowering especially migrant informal employees in urban communities.
Keywords: Economic consequences, Urban, Migration, Households, Sri Lanka
Literature on urban migration in Sri Lanka over the decades emphasizes that migration plays a vital role in urban population growth and which are shaped by number of social, economic and political factors. Migrant population in urban areas has been identified as vulnerable group with regard to in accessing land, housing, employment and other services. Like in many other countries, in Sri Lanka too, economic security issue is one of the key issues facing the urban migrant. Therefore, this study explores the economic characteristics of urban migrants and their status of economic security which are important for policy.
Migrant household is defined considering household in which the head of the household had migrated to an urban location six month prior to the date of survey. The study is based on both quantitative and qualitative data gathered in one urban location, Kalutara district in Sri Lanka. The socio-economic characteristics of migrants are examined by using the quantitative data collected through a sample survey which consists of 414 households. In addition, six case studies are used to identify issues faced by them during the migration process. The factors related to economic security of migrants are analyzed by using multivariate analysis.
The findings reveal that the more than half of migrants in the study area have experienced employment insecurity condition and it is correlated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Gender differences in employment security show that females had lower level of economic security compared with their male counterparts. Approximately two thirds of female migrants have engaged in informal economic activities. The multivariate logistic regression results suggest that migrant’s individual and household level factors, such as occupation category, level of education, the sector in which the migrant employed, migrant’s health condition, household expenditure and household servings are significant predictors of the likelihood of economic security. The qualitative findings also reveal that several environmental and political factors have contributed in creating migrant’s economic security related issues. These findings suggest that policy makers should pay their attention in developing policies and programmes to overcome economic security related issues among migrants especially on females in urban communities.
Key words: *Economic Security; urban Issues; Urban Migration.
This paper investigates the L2 acquisition of wh-features and relevant constraints (Superiority and Subjacency) by Sinhala-English bilinguals in Sri Lanka. Using results from a Truth Value Judgment Task (TVT) and a scalar Grammaticality Judgment Task (GT), it is argued that advanced adult L2 speakers of English successfully acquire the uninterpretable wh-Q feature and relevant constraints in the target language despite their non-instantiation in overt syntax in L1-Sinhala. The results are consistent with other recent studies which report the successful adult L2 acquisition of new functional features in different grammatical domains (e.g., Campos-Dintrans, Pires & Rothman 2014; Foucart & Frenck-Mestre 2012). The results also support Full Access to UG principles and constraints in adult L2 syntax (White 2003), contra predictions of Representational Deficit Accounts in adult L2 acquisition (e.g., Hawkins & Hattori 2006; Tsimpli & Dimitrakopoulou 2007).
In Sri Lanka, approximately a half of urban population has concentrated in the Western Province. This study aims to identify the issues and prospects in urban human resources development in Sri Lanka. This knowledge is essential to formulate policies for sustainable urban management in Sri Lanka, and garner a broader understanding of nature of urban human resources, issues in the utilization of human resources, and the wellbeing of urban population. The study uses both primary data and secondary data to examine characteristics of urban population and issues faced by urban dwellers with regard to human resources development. The primary study covers selected urban locations in all three districts namely, Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara in the Western province Sri Lanka including 1600 sample population. The project also explores the qualitative aspects of urban dwellers’ wellbeing. This study develops the conceptual approach in recognizing the central role of population dynamics, and socioeconomic, political and environmental factors in addressing wellbeing issues of urban population. This aims at empowering people by fostering the contributory capacities and skills, and talents that they can bring to the improvement of their own quality of life and that of their families, communities, and societies.
South Asia Urban Forum 2015 | pg. 30
Like in many other developing countries, Sri Lanka too urban work force contributes largely to the labour force of the country. Colombo is the highly urbanized district in the country whereas 78 percent of its population is currently living in urban areas. The informal sector absorbs approximately 45 percent of employment of the labour force, mainly to the non-agricultural employment (Department of Census and Statistics, 2012). Which is relatively high compared to other districts and it has also important impact on determining the low level of unemployment (3%) in the district. It is evident that all macroeconomic policies have direct and indirect effects on the growth of both urban informal and formal employment since 1970s. The number of people employed or unemployed or searching for work in an area depends primarily on the demographic compositions of its population. Also, demographic components such as births, deaths (natural increase) and migration determine the size and the age - sex structure of labour force. Previous studies have largely focused on economic aspects of urban informal sector and inadequately discussed the importance of demographic compositions and issues of current manpower. Therefore, this paper attempts to identify the demographic compositions and employment related issue in urban settlement context.
The key issues facing the urban communities in many developing countries are found to be urban unemployment, underemployment, poverty and unequal distribution of resources (Todaro, 1976; ILO, 2012). Today, 18.3 percent of Sri Lankan population lives in urban areas and nearly half of the urban population (48%) lives in the Colombo district (Department of Census &
Statistics, 2012). Colombo being the largest city of the country, half of its population concentrated in 1,505 settlements which were identified as underserved settlements, illegally build, of which 86% of land owned by the state. About 300,000peopleare living in 65,000 housing units which are slums and squatter settlements where health and sanitation facilities remain at low levels (USDA, 2011). Many people migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment tend to find job in informal sector and find shelter in slums and squatter settlements. These informal jobs lack basic social or legal protections or employment benefits and may be found in the formal sector, informal sector or households. Hence, identifying demographic compositions and employment related issues in the context of urban settlement work force are important for addressing policy implications.
The objectives in this paper are twofold: first to examine the literature on demographic compositions of work force in urban settlement area: Second, to identify issues of urban employment and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants.
There are two sets of literature exist on demographic compositions and urban work force. First, related to the effect of demographic factors or compositions on employment participation (Dariotis et al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Riordan & Shore, 1997; Thongchumnum, 2008) and the second, demographic and economic motives of migration to urban areas and expansion of urban informal sector (Todaro, 1976) Several studies reveal that population compositions such as age, sex, ethnicity, and education influence on the employment participation of a population in the informal sector (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Gunathilake, 2008; Arunathilaka & Jayawardene, 2010). In Sri Lanka,it is found that the informal sector contributes to more than two thirds of total employment which consisted of own-account workers, unpaid family workers, and daily paid, private sector employees (Arunatilake and Jayawardena, 2005; Gunatilaka, 2008). The studies have emphasized the age- sex composition and migratory behavior of the workers those absorb to urban informal sector and frequently argued that a large number of short duration migrants find employment in the informal sector and most occupations available for males (Banerjee, 1983; McGee, 1982; Kundu, 1999)Also, the workforce in the informal sector is very young and majority of them are in in the age group of 15 to 35 and the level of literacy and education are very low (Dariotis et_al, 2011; Kandu, 1999). There are gaps in knowledge with regard to manpower issues, which are closely related to demographic compositions in urban settlement areas.
The study is based on quantitative data which was gathered from a random sample of two selected urban settlement communities in Nawagampura Colombo district in 2013. The sample size for the present study is 487 individuals who were either employed or searching for employment during the reference period and between ages 15-59. Data were collected by using interviewer administered questionnaire. Individual questionnaire included demographic and, socioeconomic characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, age, marital status, and level of education, and current employment status and so on. Bi-variate and logistic regression analyses were done to identify demographic determinants of employment participation and employment related issues. In the logistic regression model, the dependent variable has two outcomes, (a) employed and (b) unemployed. The independent variables are age, sex, level of education, marital status, household size and religion.
Findings, Conclusion and Policy Implications
The findings reveal that among those aged 15-59 persons 54% of males and 46% are females while mean age is 36 years. A substantial proportion of working age population (30%) is unemployed and this figure is ten times higher than district average (3%). The proportion of female unemployment is four times (81%) higher than male (19%). Majority of unemployed females are in aged 15-24. More than half of the population had level of education grade 6 to 11, and 29% had primary or below. Only 12% had passed GCE O/L and above. The ethnic composition of working age population shows that a large majority is from non-Sinhalese ethnic groups (Sinhalese -36%, Sri Lankan Tamil-48% and Moor- 16%). Marital composition shows that 75% of population had currently married while 23% are single. More than two thirds of employed persons (71%) state that their current job is not secure as they are engaged in informal employment. Logistic Regression results also revealed that controlling for other demographic factors females are 10 times more likely to get unemployed when compared to their male counterparts. In addition, age, level of education, and current marital status are significant predictors of likelihood of getting unemployed. These results suggest that future employment programmes should focus on empowering women and creating employment opportunities for females in urban settlement communities. Furthermore age-sex structure of population and education composition need to be taken into consideration when addressing employment related issues in these communities.
Keywords: Demographic Composition; Employment Participation; Urban Workforce
Arunatilaka, N., &J ayawardene, P. (2010). Why people choose to participate in the Informal sector in Sri Lanka. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 53, 225-248.
Department of Census, and Statistics. (2012). Census of Population and Housing 2012.Colombo: Department of Census and Statistics.
Dariotis, Jacindaet_al. (2011, April). Pathways of Early Fatherhood, Marriage, and Employment: A Latent Class Growth Analysis. Demography, 48,
Gunatilaka, R. (2008). Informal employment in Sri Lanka: Nature, probability of employment and Determinants of wages. International Labour Organization.
International Labour Organization (2012). Statistical update on employment in the informal economy. Department of Statistics, ILO.
Kundu A. (1999) Urban Informal Sector in India: Macro Trends and Policy Perspectives. Discussion Paper. International Labour Office, Geneva.
Riordan, C., & Shore, L. (1997). Demographic Diversity and Employee Attitudes: An Empirical Examination of Relational Demography Within Work Units. Applied Psychology, 82, 342-358.
Scott, M., Swortzel, K.', & Taylor, W. (2005). The Relationships between Selected Demographic •, Factors and the Level of Job Satisfaction of Extension Agents. Southern Agricultural Education Research, 55, 102- 115.
Thongchumnum, P.^j Suwanro, S., &Choonpradub, C. (2008, November). Demographic Factors Affecting Employment in Pattani and Songkla Provinces of Thailand. Asian Social Science, 4, 169-176.
Todaro M. (1976) Internal Migration in Developing Countries: A Review of Theory, Evidence, Methodology and Research Priorities. International Labour Office.
Urban Settlement Development Authority (2011). Coiporate Plan 2011- 2016,'USDA.
The main objective of this paper is to examine the issues facing women employed in the informal sector in developing countries. The employment participation of women in the informal sector has been increasing in developing countries in recent years. The contribution of this gendered informal employment to the total employment in Sri Lanka is also significantly different from the experiences of other developing countries. The evidence shows that in Sri Lanka, men dominate the proportion of the employed in the informal sector (71%), whereas women dominate the proportion in other contexts. The general notion of the positive relationship between the level of education and female labour force participation is, however, questionable in the context of Sri Lanka, where the female labour force participation rate has remained stagnant at 33 to 35 percent of working age women in recent decades. Still, currently more than half of total employed women (54%) engage in the informal sector. Therefore, it is vital to examine the issues of women who work in the informal sector.
This study is based on existing literature with respect to women’s informal sector economic activities in different contexts. Women’s issues are identified and analyzed under three main areas such as job-related issues, demographic and socioeconomic-related issues and health and morbidity-related issues.
The findings reveal that women have faced several job-related issues such as job loss, job related injury, sickness and death, and trade union-related issues. Low level of education, marital status and fertility behavior, number of school-age children, looking-after elderly parents, low income and poverty were found as other demographic and socioeconomic- related issues of these women. The findings further revealed that informal sector women have faced health and morbidity related-issues which were related to their occupations. The majority of them have engaged in occupations such as selling goods, street vending, craft working, domestic aid and unpaid family activities and they have suffered with communicable diseases. It is also found that social welfare programs for these women need to be strengthened to improve the quality of their lives.
Key words: Women employment participation, Informal sector, Employment issues