The main purpose of this paper is to explore how and what factors were caused to emerged and evolution of Ceylon Civil Service (CSS) under the colonial administration. Sri Lanka is one of the colonized country in the Asia which have colonial administration under the three European nations. There was a public service or civil service has been performed by the three European nations but formal civil service was established by the British colonial administration. Pre- colonial experience of the local administration of the Island was highly feudal one under the King domain period. Kandyan Kingdom was last administration of the Kingship and governance system I n the country. In 1796 British encroached the law country side and they could succeeded the entire country in 1815 with support of the King’s officers of the up country Kingdome. There are many terms have been used by the many scholars and writers for define of the decision making and implementation body of the government with regard socio economic development of the people in given country. Therefore many terms such as Civil service, Public service, Public administration etc. have been used for defined it in modern context. However, commonly, it has been define by the academia as term bureaucracy. Sri Lankan experience of emerging and evolution of civil service has a long historical time line with different context and back ground. It has come as a most modified Civil Service In today. Therefore, How and what factors have been caused to emerging of Ceylon Civil Service in the colonial period? This is mainly a historiography investigation with regard nature and establish of the administrative system by the colonial administration in the Island. Therefore, various scholarly writings and arguments with regard establishment of the beginning stage of Ceylon Civil Service have been critically examined in this paper. The main outcome of this paper has been discovered that European domination of the Ceylon Civil Service has been negatively impact on colonization of the civil service at the British colonial stage. Political patronage, recruitment of the less qualified people for the civil service has been badly impact on their performance. Un- familiarization of the native culture. Language and customs of the native people that European officers have been failed to give a comprehensive service for the local people and society. But, however, some positive reforms and enhancement done by the colonial administration have been crucially and positively impact on prevailing public service by the time. It has been impact on long term quality and Ceylonization of the public service in Sri Lanka. This finding is significant in term study of the public service and civil service of the country. Also, this paper has been given a motivation and new path for researchers who desire to do an investigation with regard history of public administration in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Colonial Administration, Ceylon Civil Service, Un-familiarization of the service, Civil Service Reforms, Political Patronage
The main purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the women participation in local political institutions impact on gender equality in democratic governance. Gender equality is one of the most important concepts in term “Modern Democracy”. It has strengthen and sharping the pluralistic democracy which is a significant theoretical and practical concept in practical politics in a given society. As a democratic country, Sri Lanka has been adopted Women as a special social segment which have been giving significant contributions for the social, economic and political development in Sri Lankan society. Local government institutions is core stone of the country democracy as well as governing process. It is largely responsible for the socio, economic and democratic development of the country as a whole. Since independence, there are many democratic protections and legal provisions as well as social and intellectual debates have been raised on enhancement of woman participation in local government sector in Sri Lanka in term enhancement gender equality in political participation in local democracy. Yet, it has not realized due to loosing opportunities with regard faire participation in active representation in local politics why? I have been used both qualitative as well as quantitative approaches for the gathering data and information. It is a timely needed investigation of political participation of women in local democracy and governance in Sri Lanka. Further, it is significantly important viewpoints of this research for the policy perspective as well as academic aspect. Final outcome of this research is extremely important for further research who desire to continue research activities on women and political participation in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Women Representation, Gender Equality, Democratic Governance, Local government