The main purpose of this paper is to explore how and what factors were caused to emerged and evolution of Ceylon Civil Service (CSS) under the colonial administration. Sri Lanka is one of the colonized country in the Asia which have colonial administration under the three European nations. There was a public service or civil service has been performed by the three European nations but formal civil service was established by the British colonial administration. Pre- colonial experience of the local administration of the Island was highly feudal one under the King domain period. Kandyan Kingdom was last administration of the Kingship and governance system I n the country. In 1796 British encroached the law country side and they could succeeded the entire country in 1815 with support of the King’s officers of the up country Kingdome. There are many terms have been used by the many scholars and writers for define of the decision making and implementation body of the government with regard socio economic development of the people in given country. Therefore many terms such as Civil service, Public service, Public administration etc. have been used for defined it in modern context. However, commonly, it has been define by the academia as term bureaucracy. Sri Lankan experience of emerging and evolution of civil service has a long historical time line with different context and back ground. It has come as a most modified Civil Service In today. Therefore, How and what factors have been caused to emerging of Ceylon Civil Service in the colonial period? This is mainly a historiography investigation with regard nature and establish of the administrative system by the colonial administration in the Island. Therefore, various scholarly writings and arguments with regard establishment of the beginning stage of Ceylon Civil Service have been critically examined in this paper. The main outcome of this paper has been discovered that European domination of the Ceylon Civil Service has been negatively impact on colonization of the civil service at the British colonial stage. Political patronage, recruitment of the less qualified people for the civil service has been badly impact on their performance. Un- familiarization of the native culture. Language and customs of the native people that European officers have been failed to give a comprehensive service for the local people and society. But, however, some positive reforms and enhancement done by the colonial administration have been crucially and positively impact on prevailing public service by the time. It has been impact on long term quality and Ceylonization of the public service in Sri Lanka. This finding is significant in term study of the public service and civil service of the country. Also, this paper has been given a motivation and new path for researchers who desire to do an investigation with regard history of public administration in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Colonial Administration, Ceylon Civil Service, Un-familiarization of the service, Civil Service Reforms, Political Patronage
The main purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the women participation in local political institutions impact on gender equality in democratic governance. Gender equality is one of the most important concepts in term “Modern Democracy”. It has strengthen and sharping the pluralistic democracy which is a significant theoretical and practical concept in practical politics in a given society. As a democratic country, Sri Lanka has been adopted Women as a special social segment which have been giving significant contributions for the social, economic and political development in Sri Lankan society. Local government institutions is core stone of the country democracy as well as governing process. It is largely responsible for the socio, economic and democratic development of the country as a whole. Since independence, there are many democratic protections and legal provisions as well as social and intellectual debates have been raised on enhancement of woman participation in local government sector in Sri Lanka in term enhancement gender equality in political participation in local democracy. Yet, it has not realized due to loosing opportunities with regard faire participation in active representation in local politics why? I have been used both qualitative as well as quantitative approaches for the gathering data and information. It is a timely needed investigation of political participation of women in local democracy and governance in Sri Lanka. Further, it is significantly important viewpoints of this research for the policy perspective as well as academic aspect. Final outcome of this research is extremely important for further research who desire to continue research activities on women and political participation in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Women Representation, Gender Equality, Democratic Governance, Local government
The main purpose of this paper is to explore, existing nature of the local government sector with regard service delivering and social wellbeing of the grass root community who live in country side. Local government institutions are key stone of the social and economic development of the given country. Sri Lanka has a long historical evaluation process regarding local government institutions. As a modern local government institution that Pradeshiya Saba was established in 1987 at the grass root level with regard rapid acceleration of the social and economic development of the rural community. It has given enough power, authority and privileges with regard decision making regarding social and economic development of the grass root people. Yet, after thirty years period, there are not shown sufficient improvement of the social and economic life of the people who are living in Pradeshiya Saba which is located countryside why? This trend has to be investigated through applying suitable methodology including suitable techniques. Specially, reasons for existing nature of Pradeshiya Saba should be examined by investigation of the performance of the role of local authorities. Therefore, qualitative approach such as questioners and field interviewers and discussions has been used for the gathering information’s in this regard. There are eight Pradeshiya Saba institutions has been selected for the carried out field activities in this research. Final output of the research has been indicating that weak performance of the existing Pradeshiya Saba on their service delivering has been crucially impact on social and economic wellbeing of the grass root people. Inefficiency and weak attitudes and commitment of the elective people and officers of the Pradeshiya Saba have been negatively impact on performances of the Pradeshiya Sabah in peripherals society. Final output of this research is significant regarding readjustment of performance of the elective members and officials and implementations mechanism with regard role and activities of the existing local government institutions. Also, final result of this research has been opened new path for initiate research activities for the researchers who has desire to start research in same area.
Key Words: Service Accountability, Social wellbeing, Grass root Community, Pradeshiya Saba
Timber is one of the major construction material in Sri Lanka and timber seasoning is a common practice for achieving dimensional stability. The industry uses timber for interior and exterior joinery work such as doors, windows, door and window frames and panelling. However, forming seasoning defects is a common issue which prevalent in this industry. Therefore this study is conducted to identify defects caused by seasoning for teak timber and to find out solutions. For this reason, there different kilns located in Biyagama, Horana and Kottawa, operated under different schedules were selected. The impacts of three schedules were tested using teak planks. Kiln temperature and moisture content were measured for the entire seasoning period. Cupping, twisting and end cracking were measured as defects. Moreover, prong test was also conducted to determine the stress condition of the dried wood samples. Among the selected kilns, only one was maintained under the operating parameters recommended by the kiln manufacturer. The results revealed that the kiln which was programmed to regulate temperature produced the least amount of defects. However, moisture content was not programed for any of the kilns. Therefore it can be concluded that temperature has more impacted on causing defects on timber drying in the seasoning period. Therefore it is essential to regulate the temperature as per with kiln schedule.
Keywords: Construction industry, Timber identification, Seasoning issues, Kiln drying