Timber is one of the major construction material in Sri Lanka and timber seasoning is a common practice for achieving dimensional stability. The industry uses timber for interior and exterior joinery work such as doors, windows, door and window frames and panelling. However, forming seasoning defects is a common issue which prevalent in this industry. Therefore this study is conducted to identify defects caused by seasoning for teak timber and to find out solutions. For this reason, there different kilns located in Biyagama, Horana and Kottawa, operated under different schedules were selected. The impacts of three schedules were tested using teak planks. Kiln temperature and moisture content were measured for the entire seasoning period. Cupping, twisting and end cracking were measured as defects. Moreover, prong test was also conducted to determine the stress condition of the dried wood samples. Among the selected kilns, only one was maintained under the operating parameters recommended by the kiln manufacturer. The results revealed that the kiln which was programmed to regulate temperature produced the least amount of defects. However, moisture content was not programed for any of the kilns. Therefore it can be concluded that temperature has more impacted on causing defects on timber drying in the seasoning period. Therefore it is essential to regulate the temperature as per with kiln schedule.
Keywords: Construction industry, Timber identification, Seasoning issues, Kiln drying
Local government is core stone of the democracy and development of the given country. Global trend of the local government has been rapidly changed and have adopted principles of good governance in practical sense in local institutional systems in the world. Local government system in Sri Lanka has to be changed with parallel to global trend in term “Good Governance”. Universal nature of Local government is significant regarding determine shape and nature of the democratic political culture of the given society as whole. Global objective of the local government is to archive millennium goals by adopting principles of good governance in practices. Sri Lanka is democratic country with consist their own local government system since long historical time line. One of the main purposes of this local government system was to enhance democratic practices by adopting universal trends and deliver rapid and quality service for the ordinary citizens for their social wellbeing. Yet, recent trend has emphasized that most of local government institutions has been reflected lack of adopting and practices of good governance principles with regard quality services in their institutional practices. Why? The overall objective of this paper is to explore the main reasons behind the failure of good governance in practices of existing local government institutions. This research, specially, focused on practices of good governance in local sphere. As a methodology, to gathering facts and information that secondary data approach has to be applied in this regard. Therefore, global literature has to be accessed for gathering information. Main scholarly writings and interpretations and arguments have been reexamined in this paper. There are many reasons has been recovered with regard failure of good governance in practices. Specially, Ideological complexities, party dominations have been impacted on local government functions and services. Grass root social composition and elite dominations has been manipulated local institutional system and their functions. Weak civil society and their activities have been created a favorable environment for the pro - corruption bribes oriented local institutional system. As well as, electoral system and behavior of the elected people have negatively impacted on practices of good governance in local government institutions in Sri Lanka.
Keywords: Dilemma of Practices; Good Governance; Global Trends; Part domination; Local Government Institutions
In recent years, due to rising raw material and labor costs, increasing attention is being devoted to improve wood sawing practices. While a high cutting rate is still among the most desired characteristics, other factors such as improved cutting accuracy and surface quality, reduced kerf losses, noise, downtime, and maintenance of the machine are becoming increasingly important. However, band sawmilling have advantages over circular saws which include higher cutting speeds lower kerf waste, and typically lower noise levels. Considering above advantages several Sri Lankan companies have now established band saw milling factories. Thus the key objectives of this study were to evaluate cutting time of band sawmills and to investigate waste generation. Three different band saws (TRAK-MET TTP 600 premium; TM, Wood-Mizer LT20; WM, and Veheran; V) which are commonly used in Sri Lanka were used to this study. Evaluation of cutting time and waste generation in different band sawmills were done with special reference to Teak timber. Results show that the fastest cutting time in WM (mean cutting time of 27s), medium cutting time in TM (mean cutting time of 60s) and the slowest cutting time in Veheran (mean cutting time of 180s). The factors such as tooth profile, setting value, sharpening frequency, status of lubrication, tensioning pressure of the blade and capacity and the condition of the machine may have affected to the fastest cutting time. According to the results of evaluation of saw dust Veheran showed the highest wastage owing to high kerf and factors such as poor lubrication, lower tensioning pressure. Moreover, cutting time negatively correlated with the lubrication and saw tension in band sawmills. Therefore, it can be concluded that proper saw mill management is necessary for reduction of timber wastage and increase the efficiency of the industry.