The end of cold war had marked a beginning of new world order. China and India became significantactors for their gradual rise into great stature in international politics. The developments in internationalpolitics such as terrorism had posed threats and open economic policy created new opportunities.Those developments required cooperation among the US. China and India. The relations among thethree nations had been conceptualized as strategic triangle following the realist school of internationalpolitics where US was perceived as the pivot actor. The objective of the study was to map the contentof relationship among US. China and India through a historical perspective. Consequently, an attemptwas made to predict the possible direction of this triangular relations and motives for such relationsresulted in new type world order characterized by multipolar powers while United States remaining asthe super power in the foreseeable future. The data for the study was collected through secondarysources and they had been descriptive presented to identify evolving trends of relations among thethree nations. The study had concluded that Chinese and Indian ascendancy would displace US as thesuper power in the 21st Century.Key Words: China, India, United States, Triangular Relationship, Conflict, CooperationCite
Gyrinops walla is the only agarwood producing tree growing in Sri Lanka which is believed to be endemic. Agarwood is valuable resinous heartwood of Thymalaeaceae family. Present study is aimed to identify the characteristics of naturally formed agarwood type resins in G. walla stems. Samples were isolated from trees growing three different location in the wet zone of Sri Lanka. Naturally formed resinous part of wood was solvent extracted and analysed by GCMS. Further, the current study has developed an effective GCMS method to analyse agarwood type resin from G. walla. Tree diameters and the heights varied in the trees samples, which had no effect on resin formation. Resin contents were not significantly different between three populations although the chemical variations were considerably high. Among the 19 constituents identified by GCMS in the agarwood resins, free fatty acids and isopropyl naphthalene, 2-phenylethyl chromone compounds found to be common for most of the G. walla trees tested. Comonly found sesquiterpene compounds from the G. walla resin were Jinkhol, γ-eudesmol, valerenol and valerinal. Similar compounds have been reported in resin from Aquliaria spp. which is the more established source of agarwood. A future study would experiment on artificial resin induction methods and establishing plantations of G. walla to sustain its supply.
Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts in Sri Lanka. Tree diameter and total height were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values. Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots. According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. Carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass. Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.