The main purpose of this paper is to explore how and what factors were caused to emerged and evolution of Ceylon Civil Service (CSS) under the colonial administration. Sri Lanka is one of the colonized country in the Asia which have colonial administration under the three European nations. There was a public service or civil service has been performed by the three European nations but formal civil service was established by the British colonial administration. Pre- colonial experience of the local administration of the Island was highly feudal one under the King domain period. Kandyan Kingdom was last administration of the Kingship and governance system I n the country. In 1796 British encroached the law country side and they could succeeded the entire country in 1815 with support of the King’s officers of the up country Kingdome. There are many terms have been used by the many scholars and writers for define of the decision making and implementation body of the government with regard socio economic development of the people in given country. Therefore many terms such as Civil service, Public service, Public administration etc. have been used for defined it in modern context. However, commonly, it has been define by the academia as term bureaucracy. Sri Lankan experience of emerging and evolution of civil service has a long historical time line with different context and back ground. It has come as a most modified Civil Service In today. Therefore, How and what factors have been caused to emerging of Ceylon Civil Service in the colonial period? This is mainly a historiography investigation with regard nature and establish of the administrative system by the colonial administration in the Island. Therefore, various scholarly writings and arguments with regard establishment of the beginning stage of Ceylon Civil Service have been critically examined in this paper. The main outcome of this paper has been discovered that European domination of the Ceylon Civil Service has been negatively impact on colonization of the civil service at the British colonial stage. Political patronage, recruitment of the less qualified people for the civil service has been badly impact on their performance. Un- familiarization of the native culture. Language and customs of the native people that European officers have been failed to give a comprehensive service for the local people and society. But, however, some positive reforms and enhancement done by the colonial administration have been crucially and positively impact on prevailing public service by the time. It has been impact on long term quality and Ceylonization of the public service in Sri Lanka. This finding is significant in term study of the public service and civil service of the country. Also, this paper has been given a motivation and new path for researchers who desire to do an investigation with regard history of public administration in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Colonial Administration, Ceylon Civil Service, Un-familiarization of the service, Civil Service Reforms, Political Patronage
The main purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the women participation in local political institutions impact on gender equality in democratic governance. Gender equality is one of the most important concepts in term “Modern Democracy”. It has strengthen and sharping the pluralistic democracy which is a significant theoretical and practical concept in practical politics in a given society. As a democratic country, Sri Lanka has been adopted Women as a special social segment which have been giving significant contributions for the social, economic and political development in Sri Lankan society. Local government institutions is core stone of the country democracy as well as governing process. It is largely responsible for the socio, economic and democratic development of the country as a whole. Since independence, there are many democratic protections and legal provisions as well as social and intellectual debates have been raised on enhancement of woman participation in local government sector in Sri Lanka in term enhancement gender equality in political participation in local democracy. Yet, it has not realized due to loosing opportunities with regard faire participation in active representation in local politics why? I have been used both qualitative as well as quantitative approaches for the gathering data and information. It is a timely needed investigation of political participation of women in local democracy and governance in Sri Lanka. Further, it is significantly important viewpoints of this research for the policy perspective as well as academic aspect. Final outcome of this research is extremely important for further research who desire to continue research activities on women and political participation in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Women Representation, Gender Equality, Democratic Governance, Local government
The main purpose of this paper is to explore, existing nature of the local government sector with regard service delivering and social wellbeing of the grass root community who live in country side. Local government institutions are key stone of the social and economic development of the given country. Sri Lanka has a long historical evaluation process regarding local government institutions. As a modern local government institution that Pradeshiya Saba was established in 1987 at the grass root level with regard rapid acceleration of the social and economic development of the rural community. It has given enough power, authority and privileges with regard decision making regarding social and economic development of the grass root people. Yet, after thirty years period, there are not shown sufficient improvement of the social and economic life of the people who are living in Pradeshiya Saba which is located countryside why? This trend has to be investigated through applying suitable methodology including suitable techniques. Specially, reasons for existing nature of Pradeshiya Saba should be examined by investigation of the performance of the role of local authorities. Therefore, qualitative approach such as questioners and field interviewers and discussions has been used for the gathering information’s in this regard. There are eight Pradeshiya Saba institutions has been selected for the carried out field activities in this research. Final output of the research has been indicating that weak performance of the existing Pradeshiya Saba on their service delivering has been crucially impact on social and economic wellbeing of the grass root people. Inefficiency and weak attitudes and commitment of the elective people and officers of the Pradeshiya Saba have been negatively impact on performances of the Pradeshiya Sabah in peripherals society. Final output of this research is significant regarding readjustment of performance of the elective members and officials and implementations mechanism with regard role and activities of the existing local government institutions. Also, final result of this research has been opened new path for initiate research activities for the researchers who has desire to start research in same area.
Key Words: Service Accountability, Social wellbeing, Grass root Community, Pradeshiya Saba
Local government is core stone of the democracy and development of the given country. Global trend of the local government has been rapidly changed and have adopted principles of good governance in practical sense in local institutional systems in the world. Local government system in Sri Lanka has to be changed with parallel to global trend in term “Good Governance”. Universal nature of Local government is significant regarding determine shape and nature of the democratic political culture of the given society as whole. Global objective of the local government is to archive millennium goals by adopting principles of good governance in practices. Sri Lanka is democratic country with consist their own local government system since long historical time line. One of the main purposes of this local government system was to enhance democratic practices by adopting universal trends and deliver rapid and quality service for the ordinary citizens for their social wellbeing. Yet, recent trend has emphasized that most of local government institutions has been reflected lack of adopting and practices of good governance principles with regard quality services in their institutional practices. Why? The overall objective of this paper is to explore the main reasons behind the failure of good governance in practices of existing local government institutions. This research, specially, focused on practices of good governance in local sphere. As a methodology, to gathering facts and information that secondary data approach has to be applied in this regard. Therefore, global literature has to be accessed for gathering information. Main scholarly writings and interpretations and arguments have been reexamined in this paper. There are many reasons has been recovered with regard failure of good governance in practices. Specially, Ideological complexities, party dominations have been impacted on local government functions and services. Grass root social composition and elite dominations has been manipulated local institutional system and their functions. Weak civil society and their activities have been created a favorable environment for the pro - corruption bribes oriented local institutional system. As well as, electoral system and behavior of the elected people have negatively impacted on practices of good governance in local government institutions in Sri Lanka.
Keywords: Dilemma of Practices; Good Governance; Global Trends; Part domination; Local Government Institutions
Abstract: Ideological Paradox of Practices of Good Governance in Local Government Institutions in Sri Lanka Local government is core stone of the democracy and development of the given country. Global trend of the local government has been rapidly changed and have adopted principles of good governance in their local institutional systems in the world. Local government system in Sri Lanka has to be changed with parallel to global trend in term “Good Governance”. Nature of Local government is significant regarding determine shape and nature of the democratic political culture of the given society as whole. Global objective of the local government is to archive millennium goals by adopting principles of good governance in practices. Sri Lanka is democratic country with consist their own local government system since long historical time line. One of the main purposes of this local government system was to enhance democratic practices by adopting universal trends such as practical aspect of good governance and deliver rapid and quality service for the ordinary citizens for their social wellbeing. Yet, recent trend has emphasized that most of local government institutions has been reflected lack of adopting and practices of good governance principles with regard quality and accountable services in their institutional practices. Why? The overall objective of this paper is to explore the main reasons behind the failure of good governance in practices of existing local government institutions. This research, specially, focused on practices of good governance in local sphere. As a methodology, secondary data has been applied to gathering facts and information regarding content analysis. Therefore, global literature has been accessed for gathering information. Main scholarly writings and interpretations and arguments have been reexamined in this paper. There are many reasons has been recovered with regard failure of good governance in practices. Specially, pro nationalistic ideological influences and party dominations have been impact on practices of good governance in local government functions and services. Grass root social composition and elite dominations has been manipulated local institutional system and their functions. Weak civil society and their activities have been created a favorable environment for the corrupt oriented local institutional system. Also, electoral system and behavior of the elected people have negatively impacted on good governance of the local government institutional system in Sri Lanka. Index Terms: Nationalistic Ideology, Weak Civil Society, Global Trends, Good Governance, Local Government Institutions.
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to explore how politics was crucially influenced on change of the spiritual behavior of the Maha Sanga (Bhikku) towards political practices in the pre and post- independence society in Sri Lanka. The trend of the politics in Sri Lankan society is becoming more complicity because Buddhism which is the main religion of the majority people of the Sri Lankan society have crucially impact on practice of the politics . Buddhism, it is very strongly called as a spiritual religion which has appeared for the people to emancipation from the bad secular social practices and beliefs. Further, since Buddha’s Parinibbana (attain to spiritual world) it has been maintained and sustained by the Maha Sanga (Bhikku) which are Buddha’s Dharma school. Therefore, Sanga community, they have strong ethical and spiritual objectives than secularized desires which base on Buddha’s teaching. Sri Lanka is one of the countries which have been practicing Theravada Buddhism as a spiritual religion by their Sanga Community. Therefore, Maha Sanga has strong spiritual objectives than secularizing their day to day social practices. There are nothing some evidence in Buddha’s teaching on Maha Sanga regarding political involvement on statehood or politics, yet there’re rapid trends and evidence have been shown in contemporary politics in Sri Lanka that is political involvement of the Sanga community regarding regimes change so far, Why? There are many scholars have done many research’s on Buddhism and politics in Sri Lanka but the difference between of those researches and this research, this research will try to find out the basic socio, economic and cultural factors which caused to motivated Sanga community regarding interfering practical politics in pre and Post-Independence politics. Discourse analysis which is one of the post structural methods of scientific inquiry in social science research will be applied as a major research method in this research. Therefore, previous discourses and arguments which have created by scholars will be critically re-interpreted and re-produced in this research. Further, final output of this research can be shown that during the period of pre and post-independence that state sponsorship and behavior of the rules has been impact on maha Sanga and their behavior regarding practical; politics in Sri Lanka. Emphasized facts and ideas of this research will be opened new room and will empower to researchers who are interest to doing similar research in same research area, Key words: Buddha’s teaching Maha Sanga, Secular practices, Spiritual Religion, Social Movements, Power Politics,
ABSTRACT The main purpose of this paper is to explore, how the changing social structure was crucially impact on formation of local administration in the context of local democracy in pre- and post independence Sri Lanka. The ancient administration system was highly centered and autocratic in the king domain period in Sri Lankan society. Entire administration system was completely controlled by the king and his subordinates’ class who had more privileges and civil powers than ordinary people on various social capacities. Due to this privileges and civil authorities of this elite group that people did not have sufficient opportunity to engage in administrative activities or politics on what they need to wish. This trend has been shown not only under the colonial period but also after independency as well. Therefore, a puzzle is creating regarding period of pre- and post-independence administrative and local governance process in Sri Lanka. There was a sufficient opportunity for the people with regard participate of politics and administrative functions. Also, considerable social change has been taken place by the time. There are sufficient structural changes were happened in grass root politics, yet, there was no shown proof evidence about sufficient opportunities for the people regarding participation in politics or administration in the governance activities, why? This study will depend on number of arguments and interpretations which have been given by the previous scholars regarding social changes and political transformation in pre and post colonial Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study is employs critical theory which is one of the main post modern approaches of scientific inquiry as a major methodology for the analysis of existing arguments. Therefore, research will be critically examined the existing nature of the context by using scholarly writings and interpretations. The main limitation of this research is finding relevant secondary sources documents which written by the previous scholars regarding same field. Mainly, this research has been found that class, cast and wealth as well as dominant civil power has been used for maintain and sustain of the politics and administration of local governance in pre and post independence Sri Lanka. Further, final output of this research can be used scholars who desire to do a research on same area with applying same methodology. Key Words: Social Power, Elites domination, Local Administration, Local Governance
ABSTRACT The main purpose of this paper is explore nature of success and failure of the government and administration system of king domain regimes in Ancient Sri Lankan politics. Until end of the 19th century that world experience was there are many different kind of monarchical governing system has been activated with subject to changers in many countries in the world. Also, Sri Lanka is a one of the South Asian countries which has long historical experience about dynastical King Domain governing and administration system. There was a strong governance system with territorial unity due to centralized power of the King. Also, there was different kind of king regimes were activated in different time periods until colonized of Sri Lanka. Since, there are several external threats as well internal influences were could be shown regarding Sri Lankan King domain governance. But, governing process was strongly maintained by the Kingship without any disruption. Simultaneously, there are many monarchical systems were activated in many countries in the world. Comparatively, there are many King domain governing systems were could be indentified in many countries in the world including South Asia. There are many monarchical governance has been activated in many countries and today they have become constitutional monarchies by adjust the existing Kingship Kingdom in many countries without abolished it. Yet, in Sri Lanka, could not continuously maintain or sustain such a monarchical governing system with their changing pattern of the politics why? This paper has examined this question regarding King Domain governance system of ancient Sri Lanka. Mainly, this research is depends on the existing literature and scholarly arguments. Therefore, critical analytical approach has been applied in the analysis for the paper. Secondary sources were applied to gathered information. Final output of this paper is that internal as well as external social and political factors have been influenced to demoralized existing ancient monarchical governance system in Sri Lanka. Due to these trends that system could not long term success. The main limitations of this research is finding relevant secondary sources documents which written by the previous scholars. Further, final output of this research can be used scholars who desire to do a research on same area with applying same methodology. Key Words: Kingship, Ancient Government, Centralized Power, External Threat, Internal Threat, Local elite.
Abstract The purpose of this paper is exploring the weakness of the global policies regarding climate change and global warming. Climate change and global warming is a one of the burning issues of the ecological governance of the contemporary world. Due to deforestation, heavy industrialization of the global economies, high density populations, urbanization, and technological advancement has called global environment more hazard situation. Scientific revolution and economic development are un-preventable phenomenons in the changing global order. Simultaneously, this process has been badly impacted on global environment. Indirect results of these trends were seriously affected on the human as well as living objects in the world today. There should be a balance policy and action with regard economic development and environmental protection. This liability should be taken by the most advanced industrialized global economies. Therefore, there is an important debate going on in the global politics on climate change and impact on sustainability of global environment. A balancing policy regarding economic development and environmental protection will provide a safe and sustainable environmental system for the human life and their economic and scientific enhancement. Result of this debate that all the states in the world have come for the international agreements regarding ecological governance with regard protection of global environment. Also, there has been conducted several conferences, summits’ and conventions regarding ecological governance yet, there could not seem a considerable proper achievement on implementation of these cooperative plans among the K.B.G. Shantha Kumara Gamlath et al 36states in the world why? This is a globally significant issue. Therefore, it should be concerned global literature to analyze the problem. Secondary data and information has been applied in this research. Quantitative data on industrialization impact on environmental changers and effects for the human being has been addressed. International agreements and weak behavior of the ratified parties regarding protection of the global environment have been analyzed in this paper. Conclusion of this investigation is that most developed states have been engaged policy debate regarding ecological governance but they have not practically demonstrated their commitment with regard protect and sustain the international treaties on governance of global environment. Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, International agreements, Ecological Governance, Weak cooperation.