This chapter describes the morphology, distribution, wood anatomy, and
variations of agarwood resin contents and resin content of Gyrinops walla endemic to Sri Lanka. We revealed for the fi rst time, this species, which populates the lower elevations of the wet zone of Sri Lanka in 2012. More importantly, the recently identifi ed species possesses agarwood-producing ability, similar to other species in the Thymelaeaceae family. Before this scientifi c discovery, G. walla was considered a least valuable species due to the very low stem density. Not much is known about this forgotten species; we intend to unleash its full potential as a new economic commodity to this country.